BIOLOGY 1M03 Study Guide - Final Guide: Mate Choice, Antimicrobial Resistance, Statistical Hypothesis Testing
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24 November 2014
—1M03 Final Exam review outline —
Understand these concepts and fill them in.
First half (lectures 1-12, outline in less detail here— fill it in from your notes!!!)
I. What is life?
II. The cell theory
a. The Pasteur experiment and its implications
III. What is an organism?
IV. Darwin, Wallace, and the theory of evolution by natural selection
a. Natural selection on individuals
i. But influencing populations
b. Artificial selection in domesticated animals
i. Evidence for the influence of environmental (natural) selection over
generations and through time
ii. How fast and how far can artificial selection go?
iii. Influence of human predation
iv. Artificial selection and genetic modification
V. Estimating the tree of life
a. Understanding phylogenies—what information do they contain?
VI. Linnean taxonomic levels
a. Modern understanding with Domains
VII. Doing experiments in biology
a. Hypothesis testing with data
i. Why do giraffes have long necks
ii. Why do chili peppers contain capsaicin?
I. The evolution of evolutionary thought
a. The Western tradition (Plato and Aristotle)
b. Overturning the static view of nature (naturalists and paleontologists)
i. What aspect of Lamarkism has been supported by recent molecular
d. Darwin and Wallace
II. Evidence for evolutionary change through time
b. Extinction and mass extinction
c. Ancient DNA
d. Transitional fossils
e. Vestigial traits
f. Instant speciation
III. Evidence that species are related
a. Geographic relationships or related species
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IV. Mechanism of natural selection
a. Darwin’s four postulates—what are they?
b. The two modern postulates summarizing Darwin’s four
V. Examples of natural selection
a. Industrial melanism in peppered moths—what does this example demonstrate?
b. Antibiotic resistance
c. Changing beaks and body sizes in Galapagos finches
VI. Candidate gene approaches to studying natural selection
a. Bmp4 gene in Galapagos finches (from chicken model organism)
b. Agoui gene in deer mice (from mouse model organism)
VII. Misconceptions about evolution
a. Human did not “come from” chimps—we both came from our common ancestor
b. “Do you believe in evolution”?
c. “Evolution is goal-directed”
d. “Evolution produces a hierarchy of life”
e. “Microevolution versus macroevolution”—why is this a false division?
i. Same four basic evolutionary processes in each
ii. The only difference is time scale and phylogenetic scale
iii. Evolutionary rates
1. Gradual evolution and rapid evolution
2. Both slow and fast—punctuated equilbria
iv. The Cosmic Calendar—a useful analogy for the enormity of geologic time
II. Cheater alleles, selfish alleles, and altruism
a. Organisms “do not act for the good of the species” unless a self-sacrificing
(altruistic) act also benefits the inheritance of their genes in future generations
i. Kin selection ideas (to be covered further in Chapter 51)
I. The Hardy Weinberg Principle
a. Allele frequencies and genotype frequencies
b. Five assumptions relating to the “no evolution” null hypothesis
c. Examples testing for Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE)
II. Heterozygote advantage and HWE
a. Case studies as examples
i. MN blood types
ii. Immune system and HLA genes
III. Types of natural selection
a. Balancing selection
i. Heterozygote advantage
1. E.g., sickle cell anemia, the HLA gene example
ii. Frequency dependent selection
b. Directional selection
i. Also called positive selection or purifying selection
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ii. E.g., beak shape or body size
c. Stabilizing selection
i. E.g., Human birth weight—why?
d. Disruptive selection
i. E.g., extreme long or short beaks
ii. Can cause speciation given enough time + non-random mating to
emphasize the disruptive selection
IV. Genetic drift
a. Any change in allele frequencies in a population due to random sampling error
from the parental gene pool
i. Coin flip or bean bag analogies
b. Random loss and random fixation of alleles
c. Process is always occuring
d. Stronger in small populations—why???
e. Genetic drift in nature
i. Founder effects
ii. Bottleneck effects
V. Gene flow
a. Migration of individuals between populations, plus interbreeding
b. In humans
i. Different parts of the genome have different modes of inheritance
1. Which are mostly/entirely from the mother or father? Which are
equally from the mother and father?
a. Random with respect to the fitness of new allele
b. Example with experimental bacterial evolution over 60,000+ generations
i. Historical contingency— Different outcomes when “replay” evolution
ii. Potentiating mutations— mutations necessary for later evolution of trait
VII. Non-random mating
a. Inbreeding—why a reduction in heterozygosity?
b. Sexual selection
i. A special form of natural selection related to traits that attract mates
ii. Female mate choice
1. When should this arise?
2. Male competitiveness for mates
1. Baculum evolution in mammals
2. Elephant seals
a. Why are the male battles so vicious?
3. Sexual cannibalism in insects
a. Genetic isolation (no gene flow) leading to independent evolution and divergence
through time— Why and how would barriers to gene flow arise?
II. Reproductive isolating mechanisms