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BIOLOGY 1M03 Study Guide - Final Guide: Homo Heidelbergensis, Homo Erectus, Homo Rudolfensis


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Jon Stone
Study Guide
Final

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Wednesday, November 11, 2015
From Hominin to Homo
Biology 1M03
Early Homo
-Origins of Homo
~ 2.3million years ago
Africa
Larger brains
Smaller teeth
Australopithecus limb proportions — ie. long limbs
Rapid development — seen by looking at enamel (rate at which enamel is
deposited)
-Homo habilis
(= ‘human (male) handy’)
1.4-2.3 mya
-East & South Africa
Taxonomic diversity
-Homo rudolfensis
-Morphospecies concept — you may see differences in the morphologies &
therefore categorize them as different species (subjectivity)
-Are they the same species or different species?
Pleistocene
-1.8 mya to 12,000 years ago
-Trend:
Decreasing temperature
Greater fluctuations over time
-Climate in which our lineage is evolving
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Wednesday, November 11, 2015
Homo ergaster
-= human (male) working
-related to early Homo
-0.6-1.8 million years ago
-River in Kenya (same location)
-KNM-ER 3733
-Supra orbital torus — large bone above the eye
-Zygomatic arch — cheek bones enlarged; wide face
-Jaw doesn't jut out
-Homo erectus?
Asia
Shows differences — morphospecies concept
Homo ergaster Morphology
-Skull
Ancestral: postorbital constriction, no chin (compared to humans), receding
forehead
Derived: less prognathic, larger brain, smaller jaws & teeth compared to other
members
Unique: brow ridge, occipital torus (fairly well-pronounced)
-Post crania
Long legs, narrow hips, barrel chest (not like other primates, very humanlike)
Modern human body proportions
Reduced sexual dimorphism (more humanlike)
Language limited?
-Based on anatomy
Terrestrial biped; biped (legs)?
-Kimora Kimeu — famous archaeologist
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Wednesday, November 11, 2015
Home ergaster: Tools & Substinence
-Acheulean industry
Mode 2
Biface (hand axe)
Specifically designed
-Carcass processing?
Unchanged for ~1million years
Homo ergaster: Meat Eating
-Hand axes plentiful
-Cut marks on animal bones
-Tooth anatomy
Large incisors
-KNM-ER (same region) 1808
Vitamin A poisoning?
When they looked at the bones, they looked rather weird & when they examined
sections of the bone, the bone is very disregular — vitamin a
Eating liver causes Vitamin A poisoning
-** Parasite diagram in textbook
Homo ergaster: Questions
-Hunting or scavenging?
Probably were both
-Fire?
-Cooking food?
800 thousand years ago, Israel, flints suggest hearths
Overlap with homo ergaster timeframe so it is possible that they did cook, but we
don’t see evidence until later
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