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CHEM 1A03 (69)


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Jeff Landry

Chemistry Exam Unit 1: Organic Chemistry  Alkanes: saturated compounds ∴ max. # of H . Least complex ny2n+2arbons. C H  Alkenes: unsaturated hydrocarbons, dounle bonds, more reactive. C H n2n  Alkynes: unsaturated, triple bonds, more reactive thatns2n-2. or double. C H  Isomers: compounds w/ the same chemical formula but diff. structure & name. Functional Groups:  Gets the lowest # b4 double/triple bonds Alcohols:  Hydroxyl group:  Ends in ol Aldehydes:  Carbonyl group:  Oxygen on first carbon  Ends in al  No number Ketone:  Carbonyl group: Oxygen not on first carbon  Ends in one Aromatics:  Alternating double or single bonds b/w carbon atoms Benzene: st  Side chains off the aromatic (1 carbon, multiple side chains) Phenyl:  Aromatic is off the main branch Carboxylic Acid:  Ends in oic  Functional group: Ethers:  Ether group:  Shortest chain gets the oxy Esterfication:  Alcohol + carboxylic acid -> ester Markovnikov’s Rule2 H added to the carbon w/2the most H already Synthesis Reaction Hydration Alkene Halogenation Hydrogonation Hydration (alcohol) Hydrohalogenation Chemistry Exam Aldehyde Carboxylic acid Ester Unit 2: Structures & Properties  Empirical knowledge: comes from observation only.  Theoretical knowledge: come from reading about something or through calculations Rutherford’s Nuclear Model 1. The atom contains a tiny dense center called the nucleus 2. The nucleus is essentially the entire mass of the atom 3. The nucleus is –vely charged 4. The e- move around in the empty space of the atom surrounding the nucleus After the experiment...  Over 98% of the particle went straight through ∴ atom is mostly empty space  About 2% of the particles went through but were deflected by large angles  About 0.01% of the particles bounced of the gold foil ∴ centre was +ve, dense & small. Bohr’s Atomic Theory (ONLY WORKS FOR HYDROGEN)  Energy lvl: o an e- can only hve specific E valves in an atom o the path follwed by the e-is a circular orbit (spherical in 3D) o an e-can only circle in onw of the allowed orbits w/ a loss of E  aTranistion B/w Energy Levels: o an e- in an atom can only change E by going from one E lvl to another. Not in b/w o light is emitted when an e- falls from a higher E lvl to a lower E lvl. o An electron generically remains in its ground state- the lowest E lvl o When an e- is given E it can be bumped to a higher E lvl called excited state Quantum Numbers  Principle (n): describes E lvl w/in the atom o E lvls are 1-7 o Max # of e- in n : 2n  Secondary (l): describes the sublvl (s,p,d,f) in n  Magnetic (1 ): decribes the orbital w/in a sublvl & direction/orientations in space for the orbital  Spin (2 ): describes the spin of an e- Scientists Scientists Contribution John Dalton Proposed an “atomic theory” w/ spherical atoms J.J Thomson Determine tht change to mass ration of an electron. Studied “canal rays” & found they were associated w/ the proton. “Plum pudding model” of the atom Maxwell Classical Physics Theory: light was an electromagnetic wave composed of electric & magnetic fields that could exert forces on changed particles Plank The energy of the atom in the solids were multiples of small quantities of E i.e E was not Chemistry Exam continous. Continous E is packaged by matter & releasef as packets. Pauli Exclusion Principle: no 2 e- in an atom hve the same 4 quantum numbers Aufbau e- hve been added one @ a time, starting w/ the lowest E orbital untill all the e- hve been accounted for. Hund One e- is placed into each of the suborbitals b4 doubling up any pair of e- Louis de Broglie Wave Nature of Electron: ligtht not only entity to exhibit wave particle quality. e- could alson exhibit wave characteristics “matter wave” Erwin Schrodinger Wave Equation: treats e- as wave matter. Density Distribution: some regions are rich in e- matter while others are scarce. Max Born Probability Density: e- is a point particle moving ina well defined path around the nucleus is replaced in wave mechanics by clouds tht describe the probable location of el- in different states. Werner Heisenberg Uncertanity Principle: You can either measure the location of an e- or you could measure it speed. But the more precisely you measure one property, the more you throw the other off. Energy Of a Photon  According to Einstein, light has properties of waves & particles. Energy is “quantized”. I.e sent out as a burst of E (photon) Lewis Theory of Bonding  Atoms & ions are stable when isoelectronic w/ the nearest noble gas o Isoelectronic: same number of valence electrons  Paired e- are stable  Atoms form chemical bonds to achieve a stable octet of e- Intermolecular Forces  Interaction tht may exist b/w molecules  Much weaker than covalent bonds: 0.001-15 % as strong  Types of intermolecular forces can be classiefied as: dipole-dipole force, London force, hydrogen bonding & dipole/ion force Dipole Dipole Forces (medium weak)  Results from the tendency of polar molecule to align themselves  +ve end of one molecule is near the +ve end of another  The strength is dependent on the polarity of the molecule London Dispersion Forces (weakest weak)  LDF occur b/w neutral non polar molecule  Occur due to the random motion of e-. At any moment, one atom may be surrounded by an extra e- from a neighbouring atom-> an instantaneous polarity on the atom.  Greater # of e-= greater the force Hydrogen Bonding (stong weak)  Exist b/w a H+ covalently bonded toa very EN atom X & a lone pair of e- on another small EN atom, Y. I.e F, N, O -> very EN X Laser  Find them in CD players, dental drills, high speed metal cutting machines &measuring system. How it works: The laser is in a non-lasing state. The flash tube fires and injects light into the ruby rod. The light excites atoms in the ruby. Some of these atoms emits photons. Some of these photons run in a direction parallel to the ruby’s axis, so they bouncd back & forth off the mirrors. As they pass through the crystal, they stimulate emission in other atoms. Monochromatic, coherent directional light leaves the rod through the half silvered mirror. Spectroscopy  As e- jump to E lvls & return back to their original state, they release different amounts of E depending on the height of the jump. As the e- releases E, they create a bright line on the spectrum. For every element, it’s electromagnetic spectrum is different. It’s like it’s own spectral fingerprint. Chemistry Exam Cat Scan  e- are accelerated @ high veloecities to a target metal (tungsten) this causes the e- to jump to a much higher E lvl. Which means their leap back would be very large. The large leap releases x-rays. When these x-rays are shone thru the body, some tissue will absorb/emit it or it may pass thru. MRI
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