2J04 Midterm Review.docx

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2J04 Mid-Term Review
STAR Questions
L1
What is the most influential abiotic factor? Sunlight
L2
What is ecotone? The transitional region b/w different ecosystems. Share
many of the species and characteristics of both ecosystems.
Major Trophic Categories of Organisms: 1) Producers 2) Consumers 3)
Detritus feeders 4) decomposers
L3
How is the role of autotrophs and heterotrophs different or the same?
What are limiting factors in ecosystems?
Know the nutrients cycles (carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen).
What are the violations of 1st and 2nd principles of ecosystems
sustainability?
Learn 3 ecosystems services and functions
L4-5
What is climax ecosystem? Is the equilibrium b/w species and physical
environment, and the balance b/w the two.
L6
Learn the soil profile.
Learn soil classes.
What is productive soil?
What is the cause of soil degradation in NA? SA? Europe? Etc.
L7-8
Learn the top five elements.
Rank the atom bonds from strongest to weakest.
L9-10
Engineering applications.
Rock cycle.
L11
Rock cycle.
What is lithification? Refers to the processes (compaction and
cementation) by which unconsolidated sediments are transformed into
solid sedimentary rocks.
Learn engineering applications
L12
Engineering App.
L13-14
What are body (S & P) waves?
What is the difference b/w magnitude and intensity?
What are the structural design factors?
L15
L16
L17
Identify the merits and limits of each method (arithmetic, thiessen,
isohyetal).
Time of concentration? What are the factors that can affect Tc (from up
stream to down)? (obsicales like rock and roots).
What is DRH?
L18
Estimate snowmelt: M?
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L1: Ecosystems
Ecosystem grouping of species (plants, animals…) in a given area and
interacting with each other and their environment.
Ecology the study of ecosystems and interactions among organisms and
their environment.
Biotic (Living) community in a specific environment.
Abiotic (non living) include water, air, soil, temperature, wind, sunlight…
Decline of Ecosystems/ Human impact oceans overfished, forest cut faster
than it can grow (deforestation), pollution, change in climate, agricultural soil
degradation, depletion of supplies (groundwater).
Importance of Ecosystems support human life, economy, agriculture, etc.
Also sustain biodiversity.
Global Environmental Picture rapid human population growth and
increasing consumption per person, decline of vital life-support ecosystems,
global atmospheric changes, loss of biodiversity.
Three unifying themes Sustainability, Stewardship, and Sound Science.
o Sustainability
o Stewardship (we don’t own environment but take care of it), desire
to pass something on to future generations
o Sound Science (can reproduce) causes and effects are explainable,
experiments and observations.
L2: Ecosystem Structure
Ecosystem grouping of species (plants, animals…) in a given area and
interacting with each other and their environment (ex: oceans, forests).
How ecosystems are formed: abiotics (moisture and temperature) create
plants (moisture = forest; temperature = forest type), which creates animals.
Ecotone transitional region between different ecosystems. They share
many of the species and characteristics of both ecosystems.
Inorganic
Organic
oxygen
carbon dioxide
nitrogen
water
pH
all living things
products of living things
What is trophic?
Major Trophic Categories of Organisms:
1) Producers (green plants, photosynthesis) autotrophs (“self-feeding”)
chlorophyll
2) Consumers (bacteria, insects, reptiles, mammals, etc.) heterotrophs
(feeded by/with other organisms)
o Primary consumers (herbivores; eat plant material)
o Secondary consumers (carnivores; eat herbivores and other animals)
o Higher level consumers (parasites; eat plants or animals)
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3) Detritus feeders (worms, termites, ants, etc.; eat plants or animals)
4) Decomposers (fungi, bacteria; eat plants or animals)
Limiting abiotic factors: nitrate, temperature, and altitude.
L3: Ecosystems How they work?
Transfer of Energy and Nutrients: capture of sun energy and transfer through
different trophic levels.
Atmospheric gases: nitrogen 78%, oxygen 21%, carbon dioxide <0.04%
Elements of Life:
o Organic = carbon based molecules (molecules that make up tissue of
living things are constructed mainly from natural organic molecules.
o Inorganic = molecules without carbon-carbon nor carbon-hydrogen
bonds
Law of Thermodynamics (energy)
o Frist law: energy is neither created nor destroyed; only converted.
o Second law: in any energy conversion you will end up with less usage
energy than you started with.
Principles of Ecosystem Sustainability:
1) Ecosystems use sunlight as their source of energy (photosynthesis).
2) Ecosystems dispose of their wastes and replenish nutrients by recycling
elements.
3) Ecosystems show flexibility when subject to disturbance.
4) Ecosystems depend on biodiversity.
Major/largest source of Carbon: Air (CO2) 0.04%
Carbon Cycle:
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