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2J04 Exam Study Notes.docx

Civil Engineering
Course Code
Paulin Coulibaly
Study Guide

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2J04 study notes
1. DO- dissolved oxygen is depleted as a result of the decomposition of organic matter
2. BOD- Biochemical oxygen demand measures the amount of organic material in water and
determines the DO required to break it down
3. ---
4. Petroleum products, pesticides, and detergents are organic pollutants; heavy metals, acids, and
road salts are inorganic
5. Tropic levels in biotic ecosystems constitute- 1. Autotroughs (consisting of producers) ,
2.Heterotroughs (consisting of consumers, detritus feeders and decomposers)
6. The most obvious “nonpoint” source of excess nutrients is agricultural runoff
7. The most obvious point source of excess nutrients is eutrophication
8. 2 kinds of phytoplankton: 1. green filamentous and single cells, 2. Blue-green algae (3. Diatom
single cells)
9. 2 types of benthic plants: 1. Emergent vegetation, 2. Submerged aquatic vegetation
10. Oligotrophic- nutrient poor
11. Eutrophic- nutrient rich
12. 3 diseases caused by pathogens are Typhoid fever, Cholera, and Diarrhea
13. Point sources of excess nutrients include raw sewage, septic tanks, and industrial discharge
14. Eutrophicaton Stages- 1.Nutrient Enrichment, 2.Growth/death of phytoplankton, 3. Accumulation
of Detritus, 4. Growth of Bacteria, 5. Depletion of DO, 6. Suffocation of higher organisms, Process
to control it- 1. Best Management Practices (BMP), 2. Sewage treatment improvements, 3. Adopt
regulations, 4. Ban phosphate detergents
15. 97% of the Earth’s water is salt water
16. fresh water has a salt concentration below 0.1%
17. draw water cycle, indicate loop: evapotranspiration, surface runoff, groundwater
18. Precipitation stages: 1. Adiabatic Cooling- warm air rises, expands and cools, 2. 100% relative
humidity is achieved and further cooling forms clouds, 3. Increasing condensation forms water
19. “Rain shadow refers to a region of high precipitation on the windward side of a mountain and
low precipitation on the leeward side
20. Of the Earth’s water use: 70% agricultural, 20% industrial, and 10% domestic
21. Two techniques for the desalination of water is- 1. Microfiltration (reverse osmosis), 2. Distillation
22. Overdrawing for groundwater means taking out more water from the ground than it can recharge
(QW >QR ~ QW is annual total withdrawal; QR is annual average recharge)
23. Brackish water- mixture of fresh and salt water (more salinity than fresh water, but less than sea
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