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Spencer Pope

CLASSICS 1A03: I NTRODUCTION TO CLASSICAL A RCHAEOLOGY REVIEW FOR T HE F INAL E XAM : 7 DECEMBER 2012 Format of the Exa1) Short answer/fill in the blank 2) Slide Questions 3) Essay The final Rome. exam will cover all material from lectures and from all assigned reading from the entire semester. Essay:A thematic question that will examine one category of archaeological evidence and ask you to trace its development across different periods. What is Archaeology?  Scientific study of material culture… aka objects used by cultural groups (jewellery, coins)  Excavations most common form of culture Archaeology Methods: 1. Discovery & Retrieval of Artifacts  Excavation from depositions allows us to find chronological relationships between artifacts 2. Interpretation  Identification of object by type; fit into re-established category based on use  Determining date & place of product and maker  Determine role of object within culture most difficult seeing artifact through THEIR eyes Archaeology Field Method: Excavation by Stratigraphy:  Excavation by removal of strata (horizontal layers) of soil  Stratum= a deposition of soil accumulation over time  New topsoil seals earlier deposits  Sealed deposit= archaeological context Stratigraphy= sequence of deposits of strata placed one above the other Principle of Stratigraphy:  Lower strata are more ancient than upper strata used to determine  Stratigraphy used to determine relative date or relative chronology Relative Date vs. Absolute Date: 1  RD= point of reference is another artifact/ event  AD= date on fixed chronological scale that allows identification known  Ex. Ben arrived Sept 24, 2004 (AD) John arrived before Jack (RD)  Classical Archaeology o Field archaeology; Historical resources (written records: history, literature, myth); Iconography  The Bronze Age in the Mediterranean o Minoan Culture, New Palace Period (1700-1450 BC)  Minoan Palaces: Knossos, Mallia, Phaistos, Kato Zakro  Diagnostic features of Minoan Palaces o West Entrance o Storerooms (with pithoi) o Central Courtyard o Theatral Area o Pillar Crypt (Ritual Space)  Minoan Frescos (New Palace Period 1700-1450 BC)  Palace Life o La Parisienne o Bull-leaping o Grandstand Fresco  Natural World o Flora and Fauna  Minoan Pottery, Sculpture and stonework  Snake Goddess; Marine Style and Palace Style Pottery; Harvester Vase; Bull’s Head Rhyton  Sarcophagus from Hagia Triada (funerary scenes represented)  Minoan Writing = Linear A (Phaistos Disk)  Minos in Greek Mythology, the Labyrinth and Daedalus  Thera (eruption c. 1600 BC)  Frescos: o Initiation rites (men and women) o The Flotilla Fresco o Boxer Fresco o Mycenaean Culture (c. 1550 BC-1200 BC)  Tombs at Mycenae: Grave Circle A: 1550-1500 BC  Funerary Masks in gold o So-called “Mask of Agamemnon”  Mycenaean Palaces  Sites: Orchomenos, Gla, Thebes, Athens, Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos  Palace Architecture: Propylon, Antae (colin ant), Megaron  Fortification Walls = Cyclopean Masonry o Lion Gate (1250 BC)= monumental architectural sculpture, heraldic pose, effective display of strength of the Palace  Mycenaean Funerary Architecture  Tholos Tombs o Family tombs used for multiple burials (inhumations) o Corbelled vaults, relieving tridromosapproach  Treasury of Atreus (c. 1250 BC) = half-columns decorating entranceway  Mycenaean Pottery/Ceramics  Larnakes (Sarcophagi [singulalarn]) from Tanagra (Near Thebes) o Funeral scenes: lamentations, processions: ululation  Phi and Psi (Φ and Ψ) figurines  Pattern Style - repeated patterns, quickly painted - close style: compact design  Pictorial Style = Warrior Vase  Mycenaean Writing = Linear B (used in ledgers, indicating complex economy)  Ulu Burun Shipwreck: evidence of trade and exchange of goods, luxury goods o The End of the Bronze Age  “The Catastrophe” = the collapse of the Mycenaean Palaces  Arrival of new population (Iron tools, cremation)  Who? = The Sea People, the Return of the Heraclids, the Dorian Invasion 2  Heroön at Lefkandi  Centaur from Lefkandi  Proto-Geometric and Geometric Pottery  Prothesis = laying out of corpse  Ekphora = funeral procession  The Athenian Acropolis: o The Archaic Period (600-480 BC):  The Doric Temple, the Ionic Temple  The Hekatompedon: “bluebeard,” “Herakles and Triton,” heraldic Lions devouring bulls  Freestanding sculpture: The Moschophoros, the Kritios Boy, The Peplos Girl o The Classical Period:  The Periklean Building Program:  The Propylaia and Erechtheion  The Parthenon: Sculpture, significance of architectural sculpture (how is it read in the context of Greek culture?) o Pedimental Sculpture: the Birth of Athena, the contest between Athena and Poseidon o Exterior Metopes: Gigantomachy, Centauromachy, Amazonomachy, Sack of Troy o The Ionic Frieze: evocative of the Panathenaic procession, meeting of mortals and gods  The Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi o Pythian Games = athletic competition at the sanctuary, every 4 years o The temple of Apollo (515 BC) = oracular site  Pedimental Sculpture: (E) Assembly of Gods with Apollo, (W) Gigantomachy o The Treasury of the Siphnians (530-525 BC)  Pediment: Herakes and Apollo in the struggle for the Delphic Tripod  Frieze: Gigantomachy, assembly of Gods  Caryatids in place
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