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final exam.docx

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Spencer Pope

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Final Exam Review 12/9/2013 11:19:00 PM The Discipline of Archaeology: Scientific study of material culture.  Material culture o Objects creator and/or used by a specific cultural group (Eg. Ceramic bowls, jewelry, sculpture, coins)  Typology and Development o Typology is created to provide a date (relative or absolute) outside of specific excavation context by classifying objects into groups (objects that show similar function or use) o Grouping similar artifacts into classes or “types” allows an otherwise undated example to be placed in the known chronological span o Grouping of objects must take into account = development o Development = changes to object across time o Eg. Cellphone development (large to small) and computers (Apple products) o Eg. Coca-Cola bottles, Pepsi cans, 7-up can designs o Typology allows for: understanding development of products o One further variable: class and economic standing: prestige good vs. mass consumption  Artifact Archaeological Methods 1. Discovery and retrieval of artifacts 1. Excavation from depositions in stratigraphic sequences allows us to discern chronological relationships between artifacts 2. Interpretation of objects a. Identification of the object by type-fitting the object into a pre-established category based on use b. Determining date and place of production and/or individual maker c. Determining the role of the artifact within the ancient culture = most problematic aspect of archaeology (seeing the artifacts through their eyes, not our own) Archaeological Field Method: Excavation by Stratigraphy  Excavation by removal of horizontal layers or strata of soil  Stratum – a deposition of soil accumulated over time  New topsoil seals earlier deposits  Sealed Deposit – “archaeological context” Scientific Methods of Dating  Radiocarbon Dating o Dates anything once living based on known rates of decay of Carbon Isotopes  Precision is +/- 100 years 9 at best)  Tree Ring Dating (Dendrochronology) o Valid only for wood  Precision is +/- 100 years, but usually less  Thermo-luminescence Dating o Dates objects that had been exposed to high temperatures (Eg. Pottery) o Interval of time since such exposure is measured by emission of photons from crystalline structures  Precision is greater than radiocarbon dating Relative Date vs. Absolute Date  Relative date = point of reference is another artifact or event  Absolute date = a date on a fixed chronological scare (Eg. AD, BC) that allows identification known regardless of context Classical Archaeology  Field archaeology; historical resources (written records: history, literature, myth); iconography  Periods of Greek History 1. Pre-Palatial Period = 3000-2000 BC 2. Old Palace Period = 2000-1700 BC 3. New Palace Period = 1700-c. 1450 BC 4. Archaic Period = 600-480 BC 5. Classical Period = 480-323 BC 1. Persian Sack of Athens until the Death of Alexander the Great 6. Hellenistic Period = 323-27 BC 1. Death of Alexander the Great until the principate of Augustus in Rome The Bronze Age in the Mediterranean Egypt: Great Pyramids at Giza (2500 BC)  Tomb and monument of Egyptian rulers  Pyramid of Cheops o One of the largest stone structures ever attempted and maintained in human history  Pyramid of Chephren  Pyramid of Mycerinus Iraq: Ziggurat of King Urnammu (2500 BC)  Temple on platform to Sumerian God (original height c. 50 m.) Minoan Culture – New Palace Period (1700 – 1450 BC) “Pre-Greek” Civilization 1. Exhibits cultural characteristics similar to and consistent with the Greeks, therefore may be considered a culture that gave rise to the Greeks. Evidence for cultural continuity between Minions and Greeks 2. Lacks diagnostic feature of Greek culture itself (we don’t have archeological confirmation that they were 100% Greek, therefore we can’t call them Greeks, they’re ‘Pre-Greek’) New Palace Period  Earthquake hits c. 1450 BC  Flourishing of Minoan culture: Development of ‘palaces’ as centers of religious, political, and economic power”  Knossos (excavated by Sir Arthur Evans), Phaistos, Mallia, Kato, Zakro [all have architectural similarities] Minoan Palaces  Knossos, Mallia, Phaistos, Kato Zakro o Diagnostic features:  West entrance  Storerooms (with pithoi – ceramic vessel)  Central courtyard, Minoan Hall  Theatral area  Pillar crypt (ritual space) Minoan Frescos  Palace Life o La Parisienne (Knossos portrait discovered by Sir Arthur Evans, where the details are a bit exaggerated [dark lips, long hair, dark eyes for makeup]) o Bull-leaping (high speed + person riding = danger; bull shows bravery and masculine virtue) o Grandstand fresco (two themes, scenes from daily life and the natural world, displayed rituals and religious scenes)  Natural World o Flora and Fauna (forms of life – living creatures, plants, fungi, etc.) Minoan Pottery, Sculptures, and Stonework  Snake Goddess (used faience, holding snakes, long wide skirt with open bodice [why?]); Marine Style (doesn’t have relationship to vessel’s shape, image not “framed” within the vessel) and Palace Style pottery (octopus is vertical on vessel, image is also framed between the neck and base of amphora Minos in Greek Mythology  The Labyrinth and Daedalus Thera (1600 BC eruption)  Destroyed by volcanic eruption during new palace period  Flotilla Fresco o Lots of long and big boats, coastline, buildings, some residences, animals in the wild o Ships are being guided on the coastline to these structures on land o Shows economic activity o Minoans were controllers of the sea (not pirates) but a functioning group to help all members along the way  Boy with fish  Initiation rites (men and women) Mycenaean Culture (1550 – 1200 BC) Tombs at Mycenae  Grave Circle A: 1550-1500 BC o Vertical limestone fence – indication of possession of territory, burial of deceased o Men more mourned than women o Warrior status – picture on the stele or vertical slab marking the grace o Grave good – funerary masks, individual and unique style = attempt at portraiture, but used for male burial only o Thought to be a 19 century product rather than 17 century BC product o Metallic thumbprint metal, bronze?  Funerary Masks in gold  So-called “Mask of Agamemnon” o Excavated by Schliemann, was a super cool guy Mycenae Palace  Sites: Orchomenos, Gla, Thebes, Athens, Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos  Palace Architecture: Propylon, Antae (columns in antis), Megaron  Fortification Walls = Cyclopean Masonry o Lion Gate (1250 BC) = monumental architectural sculpture, heraldic pose, effective display of strength of the palace and the community within it Mycenae Funerary Architecture  Tholos Tomb o Dromos approach, tholos – cylinder, round o Royal tomb, leaders of the community, families kept together in the afterlife o Corbelled vaults, relieving triangles, dromos approach  Treasury of Atreus (1250 BC) – half columns decorating the entranceway Mycenaean Pottery/Ceramics  Larnakes (Sarcophagi [singular is Larnax]) from Tanagra (Near Thebes) o Funeral scenes: lamentations, processions, ululation  Phi and Psi (Φ and Ψ) figurines  Pattern Style  Pictorial Style = Warrior Vase
 Mycenaean Writing – Linear B (used in ledgers, indicating complex economy) Ulu Burun Shipwreck: evidence of trade and exchange of goods, heterogeneous mix of products  Ingots of tin, copper, glass  Prestige goods including ivory, ebony and precious metals  Evidence of writing, evidence of mixed ethnicity of crew, including Mycenaean Troy of Legend, Legend of Troy  H. Schliemann, F. Calvert  Troy II “Priam’s Treasure”  Troy VI & Troy VII: man-made or natural destruction? The End of the Bronze Age  “The Catastrophe” = the collapse of the Mycenaean Palaces  Arrival of new population (Iron tools, cremation)  Return of rich burials with grave goods (evidence of social stratification)  Who? = The Sea People, the Return of the Heraclids, the Dorian Invasion  Heroön at Lefkandi  Centaur from Lefkandi The Geometric Period  Proto-Geometric and Geometric Pottery (rise of elite class) o Advent of animal registers in Geometric Art: 800 BC o Advent of human figures in Geometric Art: 750 BC  Prothesis = laying out of corpse  Ekphora = funeral procession The Development of the Greek Sanctuary  Altar: space for sacrifice, adjacent to open area for congregation (open = egalitarian)  Temple: shelter for the cult image of the god or goddess  Pan-Hellenic sanctuaries develop in 8th century BC: Olympia, Delphi, Nemea, Isthmia The Archaic Period The Origin of the Greek Architectural Orders (c. 600 BC)  Doric: Pronaos/Cella/Opisthodomos; abacus and echinus; metope and triglyph, pediments and acroteria  Ionic: shaft with fluting; volute capital, architrave with reveals, Ionic Frieze (continuous band of sculpture); 
stylobate and stereobate.  Archaic Pottery: o Black gloss or slip, reserved area, overpainting with additional colors o Black Figure Pottery: Francoise Vase, Exekias (c. 540 BC): Ajax and Achilles; suicide of Ajax o Red Figure Pottery: Andokides Painter (bilingual painter); Euphronios: Death of Sarpedon The Athenian Acropolis The Panathenaic Festival from 566 BC  Procession across city up to the Acropolis  Monetary prize for victory; military participation in competition - Sacrifice, change of Peplos on cult statue of Athena Polias The Archaic Period (600 – 480 BC)  The Hekatompedon: “bluebeard,” “Herakles and Triton,” heraldic Lions devouring bulls  Freestanding sculpture: The Moschophoros, the Kritios Boy, The Peplos Girl The Classical Period:  The Periklean Building Program: o The Propylaia and Erechtheion o The Parthenon: Sculpture, significance of architectural sculpture (how is it read in the context of Greek culture?) o Pedimental Sculpture: the Birth of Athena, the contest between Athena and Poseidon o Exterior Metopes: Gigantomachy, Centauromachy, Amazonomachy, Sack of Troy o The Ionic Frieze: evocative of the Panathenaic procession, meeting of mortals and gods The Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi  Pythian Games = athletic competition at the sanctuary, every 4 years  The temple of Apollo (515 BC) = oracular site o Pedimental Sculpture: (E) Assembly of Gods with Apollo, (W) Gigantomachy  The Treasury of the Siphnians (530-525 BC) o Pediment: Herakles and Apollo in the struggle for the Delphic Tripod o Frieze: Gigantomachy, assembly of Gods
! Caryatids in place of columns (distyle in antis)  The Treasury of the Athenians (490-480 BC): Built following Greek victory at Marathon o Doric Frieze: Deeds of Herakles, Deeds of Theseus o Distyle in antis  The Charioteer at Delphi (478 or 474 BC) (Severe Style): commemorates victory by Polyzalos of Gela  Kouroi: Kleobis and Biton (Archaic Style) (580 BC) The Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia  Votives from the 8th century BC: Bronze objects, including tripods  Temple of Zeus (470-457 BC) o Pedimental Sculp
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