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Classics 1M EXAM ROMAN TERMS copy.doc

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Department
Classics
Course Code
CLASSICS 1M03
Professor
Graeme Ward

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Classics 1M Review Roman Terms February25Rome:Introduction Livy, Cicero, Varro Geography varried: Alps in North, mountains, valleys, seas, rivers Climate: cool winters, warm-hot summers; shortage of natural resources Rome’s Neighbours: Latins (Latium) - Central Italy Etruscans (Etruria) - Tuscany, western Umbria, northern Latium Greeks - Campania - Magna Graecia - coastal areas of Southern Italy, extensively colonized the Greeks Communal Organization: small, independent city-states (clusters of villages around central political space Armies and Warfare Phalanx: a body of troops or police officers, standing or moving in close formation Hoplites: heavily armed foot soldier Poleis: colonies The Founding of Rome Mos maiorum: “ancestral custom” or “way of the elders”; the core concept of Roman traditionalism Forum Romanum: rectangular plaza, a political and religious centre Forum Boarium: market/harbour Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus: most important temple in Ancient Rome, located on the Capitoline Hill (6th Century BCE) Aerarium: public treasury King and Society Rex: King Regia: structure in Forum Senatus: Senate Curia Hostilia: original senate house; initially a temple, then used by senators acting as council to the king Populus: City Population Comitium: central meeting place (assembly) Curiae: form 3 traditional tribes (familial, military, religious affiliation) Servian Refroms Census: citizens classified by wealth/geography, not family Classics 1M Review Roman Terms Classis and Infra Classem: wealth and military service; political/military units Centuriae: centuries February28TheStruggleoftheOrders(509to287BCE) patrician monopolization of office leads to creation of a parallel plebeian organization Fabius Pictor, Livy, Dionysius The Republic Res publica - “the public thing”; common property and public affairs Patricians vs. Plebeians Patricians/Patricius - aristocrats Patres - fathers Plebs - non-patricians; rich or poor Auspicia (Auspices): bird signs; heavenly phenomena; interpreted to determine gods’ approval of actions, private or public Events and Legislation during the Struggle of the Orders Secessio: withdrawal Concilium Plebis: plebs elect their own officials (Tribuni Plebis: tribunes) Decemviri: board of ten men (first and second Decemvirate chaired by Appius Claudius) first Decemvirate (451) were all patricians second Decemvirate (450) half patrician, half plebeian 287 BCE end of the Struggle The Senate: - 300 Roman males - summoned by consul or praetor (by 3rd century BCE, could be summoned by tribunes) - advisory body Magistracies: public offices Cursus Honorum: succession of offices hierarchial course of offices: quaestor, (aedile), praetor, consul lex Villia annalis (180 BCE) - minimum age requirement for magistracies: quaestor (30), aedile (37), praetor (40), consul (43) Magistries Outside the Cursus Honorum Dictatorship: Classics 1M Review Roman Terms elected in times of crisis (domestic, military), one man given sole power, supreme authority for 6 months Censorship: created in 443 BCE 2 ex-consuls elected every 5 years, open to plebs in 351 BCE 18 month term Tribunate: created in 494 BCE (after First Secession of the Plebs) originally 2, but increases must be plebeian Sacrosanctitas: right to not be physically harmed Intercessio: veto propose bills: Plebiscites (plebiscita) = votes Aedileship: created c. 494 BCE 2 plebeian aediles elected by the Concilium Plebis upkeep of public buildings and temples games and festivals police aid to tribunes March4RomanWarfareandExpansion Polybius, Livy Roman Names: ex. Gaius Julius Caesar Praenomen (first name) Nomen (clan) Cognomen (clan branch) Warfare in Society Imperium: power to command (consul, praetor) Dedito in Fidem: “total surrender” System of Alliances Latin Allies: nominal independence, supply infantry Municipia: local government only, supply infantry; 1. Roman citizens, Roman territory; 2. civitas sine suffragio (“citizenship without the vote”) Socii: allies; no tribute/taxes, control over local affairs, supply infantry The “Hydra”-Civic Warfae The dilectus: “levy,” consuls enter office in March, citizens of classis, Campus Martius: “field of Mars,” a publicy owned area Classics 1M Review Roman Terms Coloniae: settlers act as garrisons, Roman citizens occupy land, autonomous city-state Municipia: town or city Army Organization Legion: legere (“to choose”) Legatus: representative of legion Equites: cavalry Classifications: Velites: light infantry; javelin (pilum) Hastati: spear-bearers Principes: main-liners Triarii: third-liners; thrusting spear (hastatus) Equipment: Scutum: shield Gladius: sword Lorica: armour Pilum: javelin Tactics Maniples: handfuls Signiferi: standard-bearers March7TheMiddleRepublic Factors in Roman Expansion Manpower Virtue of Virtus: virtue of ancient Roman deity personifying virutes The Populus: citizens chose their consuls, came to the dilectus (the levying of soldiers for military service\ The consulship and Senate The Nobiles Nobiles: new governing elite: patricians and plebeians; by birth, money, political ancestry; religious, political offices; cursus honorum Novus homo: new man; first member of family to reach consulship Equites: political and economic middle class Warfare and the Nobiles Laus, gloria: Dignitas: the Roman virtue Classics 1M Review Roman Terms Triumphator: man of triumph Monumenta Ludi: games (part of religious festivals, military triumphs, elite funerals) Aedile Monumenta: temples (Victoria), mausoleums Prorogatio: extend term of office to finish campaign Proconsul, propraetor: governor of a province, person in authoritative power although not in magistrate Provincia and Imperium Provincia: area of operations Imperium: power to command (armies) Imperium populi Romani: whenever community/tribe is put under Roman protection Governing Governorship under eye of Senate and quaestio (commission to inquire into a criminal matter given to a citizen) Publicani: tax-contractors Latifundia: large landed estate bo
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