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CLASSICS 1M03- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 22 pages long!)


Department
Classics
Course Code
CLASSICS 1M03
Professor
Claude Eilers
Study Guide
Final

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McMaster
CLASSICS 1M03
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Classics 1M03 Lecture 01
Bronze Age Greece - Jan, 10. 2018
Greeks first civilization in the West called this area Mesopotamia
Civilization: usually understood to be a complex society characterized by the practice of agriculture and
settlement in cities
Civilization along rivers, land is fertile
Agriculture changed everything for human settlement:
- Stable, settled occupation & predictable food supply leads to economic surplus:
- Pop. Increases, economic surplus = creation of political economy ; specialization
- Socio-economic inequality becomes constant aspect of human experience (division between
producers vs. consumers, rich vs. poor, etc)
Temple States
- NE model: Monarch as divine figurehead oversees extraction (taxation) of surplus and
reallocation to economic specialists, soldiers, builders
- Mouetal teples sere as a foal poit, ad a palae that housed the itys kig & staff
- Highly centralized political economy
- Highly bureaucratized economy of collection and redistribution
- In Middle East there were many throughout Bronze Age. Usually along rivers
Climate & Geography:
- Greece difficult to classify geographically
- On one hand, typical Mediterranean region (cool, wet winters, dry, hot summers)
- Shortage of natural resources are arable land (75% of mainland Greece is mountainous, make
different climates in the Greece, few useful mineral reserves)
- Bronze is not a naturally occurring metal (was used to make tools), Sypris was distributing
cooper to the Mesopotamia however no tin. Need tin and cooper to make bronze
- Tin is as far as Afghanistan or Britain Greece needs to wait for trade routes before bronze age
technology sets off
Minoans:
- First civilizations were not Greek, they were the Minoans. Late Minoan period
- Minos Palace at Knossos residential rooms, storehouses, workshops, central courtyard
- It was unwalled, multiple stories, finely decorated
- Minoan art, Bull leaping, geometric & naturalistic
Palace Culture of Minoans:
- Peer polity interaction: produces Cretan palace states (Minoan records: hieroglyphics (2000 BC)
Linear A (1700 BC))
- Liear A has eer ee traslated, e dot ko hat laguage it doest represet greek…
thats partly ho e ko the Mioas eret Greek
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- Palace acted as administrative/economic center
- Redistributive economy, stratified, complex social order (similar to Egypt and near east)
Rise and Fall of Minoans:
- Thalassoray seapoer – A maritime empire
- Colony of Thera
- Extensive evidence for contact with wider Bronze Age World
- Certain items listed in NE archives
- The king who did not like his shoes
- 1600 BC earthquakes, volcanic eruption at Thera
- 1400 BC destruction of palaces on Crete
Heinrich Schliemann:
- 1871- Discovery of Troy at modern Hissarlik (Turkey) find spot where ancient spot troy stood
- Found Troy
- Then found shaft graves at Mycenae, believed it to be of Agamemnon
Mycenaean Civilization:
- Mycenae site of discovery, but many independent communities
- Mycenaeans flourish in c 1600 1500 BC.
- Graves of warrior elite (evidence of complex stratified society; rulers and ruled
- C. 1500 BC: beehive tombs, evidence of further
Mycenaean Palace States:
- Monumental buildings
- Centralized tax and redistribution
- Very imprrssive, heavy fortifications (walls)
- Walled palace = Cyclopean Wall = symbolic, military; economic; religious; political and legal
center of the community
- Represent their awareness of the instability around them. Also tunnels underneath the city, so if
it is attacked they do not need to go outside
- At the heart of the palace was a big room functioning as a throne room. Outside is a waiting
room, kings court.
- Find megaron (name of room), centre of palace, served as a depot for good, extensive keeping
on clay tablets
Political Hierarchy:
- Kingdom of Pylos c. 1200 BC
- The wanax, at the head of a hierarchy of palace officials
- Lawagetas leader of the army
- Korete regional governor (lord)
- Loer offiials, heifs ith the title of pasireu
The Bureaucratic Economy:
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