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CLASSICS 1M03 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Ancient Greece, Spartan Army, Sparta


Department
Classics
Course Code
CLASSICS 1M03
Professor
Johnathan Reeves
Study Guide
Final

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CLASSICS 1M03

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The Bronze Age: Greece
- Greeks first example of civilization
- Civilization first seen in Asia + Middle East
Civilization: usually understood to be a complex society characterized by the practice of
agriculture and settlement in cities.
Agriculture Changes Everything
- Stable, settled occupation & predictable food supply leads to economic surplus:
- Population increases
- Economic surplus = creation of political economy; specialization (division
between rich and poor)
- Socio-economic inequality becomes constant aspect of human experience
Temple States
- Kings
- NE model: monarch as divine figureheadoversees extraction (taxation) of surplus and
reallocation to economic specialists, soldiers, builders (communal projects)
- Reconstruction of the Neo-Sumerian Ziggurat of Ur, c. 2100 BC.
- Highly centralized political economy
- Highly bureaucratized economy of collection and redistribution
Climate and Geography
- Greece difficult to classify geographically
- Mediterranean region cool, wet winters, dry, hot summers (semiarid)
- Shortage of natural resources and arable land
- 75% of mainland Greece is mountainous
- Few useful mineral reserves (no tin = far away from sources)
- Copper + tin = bronze (this was hard to make)
- First civilization were not the Greeks?? Island: Crete
“Minos Palace” at Knossos ( c.1700-1200 BC)
- Residential rooms, storehouses, workshops, central courtyard (unwalled)
- Drawings of bulls on wall
“Palace Culture” of Minoans
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- Minoans are not Greek
- Peer polity interaction produces Cretan palace states
- Minoan records: hieroglyphic (c.2000 BC), Linear A (c.1700 BC)
- Palace acted as administrative/economic center
- Redistributive economy, Stratified, complex social order
- Similar to Egypt and Near East
Rise and Fall of Minoans
- Thalassocracy
- Gr. Thalassa (“sea”) and
kratos (“power”)
- Colony of Thera (modern
Santorini)
- Extensive evidence for contact with wider Bronze Age World
- Cretan items listed in NE archives
- The king who did not like his shoes
- 1600 BC
- Earthquakes
- Volcanic eruption at Thera
- 1400 BC
- Destruction of palaces on Crete
Heinrich Schliemann
- 1871 Discovery of Troy at modern Hissarlik (Turkey)
Mycenae
- 1876 Schliemann discovered shaft graves at Mycenae
Mycenaean Civilization
- Mycenae: site of discovery, but many independent communities
- c.1600-1500 BC: graves of a warrior elite
- Evidence of a complex, stratified society: rulers and ruled
- From c.1500 BC: tholos (beehive) tombs evidence of further stratification
- Evidence of further starification
- Tomb of Atreus (1250 BC)
Mycenaean Palace States
- Very impressive, heavy fortifications
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