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Midterm

CLASSICS 2D03 Midterm: CLASSICS-2D03-Test-1-Review


Department
Classics
Course Code
CLASSICS 2D03
Professor
Graeme Ward
Study Guide
Midterm

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CLASSICS&2D03&Test&1&Review&
Introduction&
Myth&
Myth&=&oral&stories&(stories,&lore,&ideology,&fantasy)&&
o Often&difficult&to&define&and&interpret&
Myths&help&describe&names&(ex.&Oedipus),&the&natural&world&(stars,&heavens,&
volcanoes),&rituals,&behaviour&(ex.&love),&Geography/&politics&(Athens&vs&
Sparta),&and&morality&(ex.&Pandora’s&box)&
Myths&are&handed&down&over&generations,&anonymous,&very&fluid&&
Mythology&=&recording,&compiling,&tradition,&reception&
Mythos:&story,&speech,&word&&&&vs&&&&Logos:&truthful&account,&civilized&&
Sources:&vase&paintings,&sculptures,&frescoes,&mosaics&
Myths&are&stories:&characters,&plot,&setting&
&
Ancient&Greece&
Timeline:&Bronze&Age-&Dark&Age-&Archaic&Period-&Classical&Period&&
Attica:&Athens&&&&&&&&Peloponnesus:&Sparta,&Corinth,&Argos,&Olympia,&Mycenae&
Thrace:&Macedon,&Thessaly&&&&&Boeotia:&Thebes,&Delphi&
&
Xenophanes:&we&create&myths,&and&we&create&gods&out&of&our&own&image&
Euhemerus:&all&things&are&historical,&but&over&time&they&become&fantastic&myths&
&
Literature&and&Poets:&Homer,&Hesiod,&Sappho&(woman),&Ovid&(comical),&Vergil&
3&main&dramatists:&&Aeschylus,&Sophocles,&Euripides&&
&
Creation:&The&Gods&and&their&Nature&
Cosmogony:&kosmos&=&world,&the&existence&in&which&we&live&
Theogony:&theos&=&god&&
&
Hesiod&
First&poet&to&systematically&explain&the&cosmos,&god,&and&origins&of&humans&
The&Theogony&
Hymn&to&Zeus&about&generations&of&gods&and&the&origin&of&the&natural&world&&
&
Invocation&of&the&Muses&
Muses:&daughters&of&Zeus&and&Mnemosyne&(memory)&
Goddesses&of&art,&poetry,&and&odes&(they&inspire&mortals&with&art)&
Hesiod&invokes&the&muses&to&give&himself&credibility&&
o By&giving&credit&to&the&muses,&people&believe&him,&because&Greeks&
believed&art&required&divine&inspiration&and&memory&&
In&the&beginning&
First,&there&was&Chaos&(a&void)&
Then&Gaia&(first&deity,&female)&
Gaia&had&Ouranos&(sky),&Ourea&(mountains),&and&Pontus&(sea)&
Eros&brings&Gaia&and&Ouranos&together&(Heiros-gamos&=&sacred&union)&&

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Gaia&and&Ouranos&
Have&the&Titans&
o Oceanus,&Hyperion,&Rhea,&Cronos…etc.&&
o The&brothers&and&sisters&mate&
§ Oceanus&and&Tethys:&Oceanids&
§ Hyperion&and&Theia:&Selene,&Eos,&Helios&(moon,&dawn,&and&sun)&
Also&produce&Monsters&&
o 3&“Round-eyes”&(Cyclopes)&and&3&“hundred-handers”&(hekatonchires)&
o The&monsters&were&hated&by&their&father,&and&he&would&spread&himself&
across&the&sky&covering&Gaia&and&hiding&the&children&&
Revolution&of&Cronos&
Cronos&overthrows&Ouranos&by&using&a&sickle&to&castrate&him&&
Is&the&first&overthrow&of&a&previous&generation&
o Ouranos&curses&Cronos&and&says&the&same&thing&will&happen&to&him&
Represents&the&division&of&the&world,&separating&the&sky&(Ouranos)&from&
Earth&(Gaia)&&
Ouranos’&blood&falls&to&the&Earth&and&creates&the&Furies&and&Giants&
o Furies=&women&who&haunt&you&if&you&have&shed&kindred&blood&&
o Giants-&represent&strength&and&violence&
&
Children&of&Nox&(Night)&
Single-handed&births&(are&all&bad,&female,&and&born&of&a&female&alone)&
o Death,&Sleep,&Dreams&&
o The&3&Fates&Clotho&(spinner&of&thread&of&life),&Lachesis&(decides&length&
of&thread),&and&Atropos&(decides&when&to&cut&thread)&
o Strife&(Eris),&Nemesis,&Deception,&Doom,&and&Suffering&&
&
Birth&of&First&Olympians&
Cronos&and&sister&Rhea&mate&in&another&heiros-gamos&
o Hestia&(virgin&goddess&of&the&home),&Hera&(queen),&Poseidon&(sea),&
Demeter&(grain),&Hades&(underworld),&and&Zeus&(king)&&
Cronos&varies&in&character:&seen&as&both&tyrant&like&his&father&and&father&of&
time&and&benevolent&(seen&later&in&Zeus&as&well)&
Zeus’&Revolution&
Cronos&devours&his&children&to&prevent&his&prophesized&overthrow&
Rhea&gives&Cronos&a&giant&rock&in&place&of&Zeus&and&hides&Zeus&on&Crete&
Zeus&grows&up,&frees&siblings&by&forcing&his&father&to&throw&them&up&&
All&the&siblings&then&overthrow&their&father&
Zeus&given&thunderbolt&created&by&Cyclopes,&Zeus&and&Hera&marry&(hg)&&
&
Key&Points&
No&single,&rational,&loving&creator&
Takes&many&generations,&conflict,&and&bloodshed,&sons&overthrowing&fathers&
Dualism-&one&GENERATION&replaces&another&&
Females&are&important,&but&also&create&bad&things-&male&domination&

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Ovid’s&Version&
At&first,&there&were&Chaotic&elements&(water,&fire,&sky&earth,&darkness&all&mix)&
“Some&god”&ordered&the&elements&and&moulded&the&earth&into&a&globe&
Titanomachy&
Zeus&allied&with&siblings&to&defeat&the&titans&
o Hekatonchires&and&Cyclopes&help&Zeus&
o Promethus&and&Themis&side&with&Zeus&against&their&siblings&the&Titans&&
Gigantomachy&
Olympians&must&kill&the&giants&produced&by&Gaia&b/c&the&giants&=&disorder&
Typhoeus&
Gaia&and&Tartarus&create&monster&which&Zeus&must&battle&one-on-&one&(male&
sky&god&defeats&female&earth&creation…&sky>&earth,&male>&female)&
These&battles&are&the&final&test&of&Zeus&before&he&assumes&power&(hero&myth)&
&
The&Olympians&
Anthropomorphic:&shaped&like&and&act&like&humans&
Personification&(two&levels):&
o Basic:&Eos&(Dawn&is&dawn),&Metis&(Wisdom&is&wisdom)&
o Human-like:&Poseidon,&Apollo,&Hestia&(all&associated&with&something,&
but&not&it&itself-&ex.&Poseidon&is&god&of&the&sea,&not&the&sea&itself)&&
Olympic&vs.&Chthonian&gods&
o Chothons=&soil/earth&&
o Chthonic&spirit&spirits&lived&blow&the&earth&(ghosts,&Titans)&
o They&are&divine,&but&not&as&powerful&or&beautiful&as&the&Olympians&
Key&Trait&of&Gods:&
o Athanatos:&undying,&immortal&(is&what&makes&them&gods)-
&
Spectrum&of&Divinity&
Immortal:&
Olympians-&Zeus,&Hera,&Apollo&
Titans-&Atlas,&Prometheus,&Cronus&
Nymphs,&oceanids,&local&spirits,&muses&&
Mortal:&
Monsters-&Gorgons,&Cyclopes&
Humans:&
Heroes-&Achilles,&Heracles&&
&
Polytheism&
More&than&one&god&
Gods&want:&
o Sacrifice&&
o Honour&and&respect&(timē)-&attention,&singing&hymns&in&their&honour…&
&
&
&
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