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Midterm

COLLAB 2N03 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Agreeableness, Transformational Leadership, Authoritarianism


Department
Collaborative
Course Code
COLLAB 2N03
Professor
teal
Study Guide
Midterm

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Ch-9  Leadership
Leadership: The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in
an organizational context
Formal:
-Legitimacy: titles such as manager, executive, supervisor, and department head occupy formal
or
assigned leadership roles.
-Role/position (CEO, CFO, Vice-President etc.)
-Expected to influence others, and they are given specific authority to direct employees
Informal:
-No legitimate title
-Critical knowledge and experience
- No formal authority
-They must rely on being well liked or being perceived as highly skilled to exert influence
-Positive power always (McClelland)
Leaders Vs Managers:
- The role of the leader and the role of the manager aren’t the same
-Its possible to be a manager but not be a leader; some managers and supervisors fail to exert
any influence on others.
Leadership involves going beyond formal role requirements to influence others
Transformational Vs Transactional
Transformational: Leadership that provides followers with a new vision that instills true
commitment
-Ex: Steve Jobs in bringing the Apple Macintosh to fruition
4 Key Dimensions
1. Intellectual Stimulation: -Arouse intense feelings
- People are stimulated to think about problems, issues and strategies in new ways. The leader
challenges assumptions, take risks, and solicits followers’ ideas
2. Inspirational Motivation: -Involves the communication of visions that are appealing and
inspiring to followers. Leaders with inspirational motivation have a strong vision for the future
based on values and ideals.
-They stimulate enthusiasm, challenge followers with high standards, communicate optimism
about future goal attainment and provide meaning for the task at hand
Inspire followers using symbolic actions and persuasion
3. Rely on personal sources of power:
- Individualized Consideration
- Involves treating employees as distinct individuals, indicating concern for their needs and
personal development, and serving as a mentor or coach when appropriate

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 The emphasis is a one-on-one attempt to meet the concerns and needs of the individual in
question in the context of the overall goal or mission
4. Charisma: Ability to command strong loyalty and devotion from followers and this have the
potential for strong influence among them
-Charisma provides the emotional aspect of transformational leadership
-They hold high expectations for follower performance while at the same time expressing
confidence in their abilities
-Enhance the self-esteem of the followers
Transactional:
-Leadership that is based on a straightforward exchange relationship b/w the leader and the
followers
-Motivate by exchanging rewards for services
 Contingent reward behavior
-Motivate by exchanging rewards for services
-Manager like role: The leader clarifies expectations and establishes the rewards for meeting
them
-Management by exception: the degree to which leaders take corrective action on the basis of
results of leader-follower transactions
- They monitor follower behavior, anticipate problems, and take corrective actions before the
behavior creates serious problems
**HANDOUT
Universal Leader Influence
1. Universal trait theories or approaches:
-The belief that certain individuals are destined to be leaders regardless of the situation
Great Person approach
-Transformational leaders
-Traits: Individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability and personality
-There are limitations to the trait approach because it is difficult to determine whether traits
make the leader or whether the opportunity for leadership produces the traits
-Ex: Even if we know that dominance, intelligence, or tallness is associated with effective
leadership, we have few clues about what dominant or intelligent or tall people do to influence
others successfully
2. Universal behavior theories or approaches:
-Socio emotional and task leaders
Socio emotional:
-A leader who is concerned with reducing tension, patching up disagreements, and maintaining
morale
Task Leader:
-A leader who is concerned with accomplishing a task by organizing others planning strategy,
and dividing labor
Alternative ways to say the same thing:
The OHIO state studies:

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1.Initiating consideration: The extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal
concerns for employees
2.Inititaing structure: The degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment
Situation-Contingent leader influence: Leaders are leaders because they adjust the
expression of traits or behaviors contingent to the situation.
1. Contingency trait theories/approaches:
Fiedler’s Contingency model of leadership:
-The association b/w leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how
favourable the
situation is for exerting influence
2 Aspects:
Leadership Orientation: Leadership orientation is measured by having leaders describe their
lease
preferred co-worker (LPC)
-LPC: a current or past co-worker with whom a leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a
task.
-The leader who describes the LPC relatively favourable (a high LPC score) can be considered
Relationship oriented
-High LPC leaders are motivated to maintain interpersonal relations
Ex: despite the fact that LPC is/was difficult to work with the leader still found positive
qualities in him
or her
- While Low LPC leaders are considered task oriented  Motivated to accomplish the task
Situational favourableness:
1. Leader-member relations: When the relationship b/w the leader and the group members is
good, the leader is in a favourable situation to exert influence
A poor relationship should damage the leader’s influence and even lead to sabotage
2. Task Structure: When the task at hand is highly structured, the leader should be able to exert
considerable influence on the group
 Clear goals, clear procedures to achieve these goals, and straight forward performance
measures enable the leader to set performance standards and hold employees responsible
3. Position power: Formal authority granted to the leader by the organization to tell others what
to do
 The greater the position power the leader holds, the more favorable the leadership situation
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