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COLLAB 2N03 Study Guide - Final Guide: Ray Kroc, Advantageous, W. M. Keck Observatory

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Chapter 8
Pre-Orientation and Entry Issues:
Realistic Job Preview (RJP): The provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and
the negative aspects of a job to applicants.
-All the diff ways the employer wants to show what happens in the company
- They provide “corrective action” to unrealistic expectations at the anticipatory stage.
- RJP have been designed for jobs as diverse as telephone operators, life insurance
salespeople, US
Marine Corps recruits, and supermarket workers.
- The realistic job preview process can be compared to the traditional preview process that
often sets
expectations too high by ignoring the negative aspects of the job
-How do org. design and conduct RJP?
-Obtain the views of experienced employees and human resources staff about the positive
and negative
aspects of the job.
- Incorporate views into booklets or video presentations.
- Sometimes realistic previews use simulations to permit applicants to actually sample the
Research Evidence:
-Realistic job previews are effective in reducing inflated expectations and turnover and
improving job performance.
-Turnover reduction is due in part to reduced expectations and increased job satisfaction.
-They cause those not cut out for the job or who have low PJ and PO fit perceptions to withdraw
from the application process, a process known as self-selection.

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-Organizations that provide realistic job previews are perceived by job applicants as more
honest and trustworthy and this encourages them to remain with the organization once they are
-The reduction in turnover can result in substantial financial savings for organizations
Psychological Contracts: Beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and
promises between them and their organization.
An employee might expect to receive bonuses and promotions in return for hard work and
 They also expect that the org is going to behave in a certain way. It’s not written on paper, it’s
just in your mind
- Unfortunately, psychological contract breach is a common occurrence
 Psychological contract breach: Employee perceptions that his or her organization has failed
to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations in the psychological contract.
 This often results in feelings of anger and betrayal and can have a negative effect on
employee job attitudes and work performance
 Employee perceptions of breach are also associated with a decrease in innovation-related
behaviors and lower customer satisfaction.
Why do Psychological contract breaches occur?
- Recruiters often promise more than their organization can provide.
- Newcomers often lack sufficient information to form accurate perceptions.
- Organizational changes can cause organizations to knowingly break promises that they are
unable or unwilling to keep.
-Therefore, Organizations need to ensure that truthful and accurate information about promises
and obligations is communicated to new members.
-Psychological contract breach is less likely in organizations where socialization is intense.
-Some evidence that what organizations actually give employees is itself especially important
Developing Commitment in the new recruit:
Socialization: The process by which an employee begins to adapt to the values, norms and
beliefs of the organization and its members (culture)
-Involves learning the organizations climate and learning to fit in
Climate: Members shared perception of the contingencies b/w behaviors that occur in the work
environment and their consequences
- Learning what behaviors are expected, acceptable and unacceptable
Strategic importance of Socialization:

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1. Sets the tone of employment relationship
2. Clarifies Expectations
3. Reduces anxiety for new employees
 Will I fit in?
4. Effects employee attitudes and behavior
 Job satisfaction, job commitment and job performance
Socialization Vs Orientation
- Socialization: Process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge and behaviors that are
necessary to function in a group or an organization
-Long-Term process
 Often informal
-Orientation: Program that informs new employees about their job and company
- Short-Term
 Often Formal
-Most organizations make use of the following methods of socialization:
-Realistic job previews
- Employee orientation programs
- Socialization tactics
- Mentoring
Stages of Organizational Socialization:
-3 Stages
1. Anticipatory Socialization (Before Entry/Pre-Arrival):
- Employees begin with certain expectations about Organization and Job
 may be unrealistic, therefore if unmet might result in Job dissatisfaction  High turnover
- Some anticipatory socialization includes a formal process of skill and attitude acquisition
-Such as that which might occur by attending Uni or College
- Other anticipatory socialization might be informal
-acquired through a series of jobs or even by watching the portrayal of organizational life in
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