Review Sheet Terms.pdf

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Communication Studies
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Alexandre Sevigny

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Review Sheet Terms Tuesday,April09,2013 3:13 PM Agenda-settingTheory - A theorythat arguesthat the media tell peoplenot whatto think but what to think aboutit - Ex: newsorganization,they have their own agenda(goals)that they try to force onto you ○ FoxNews is veryconservative,try to pushon their conservativeviews Attitude - A predispositionto respond to an idea, person,or thing favourableor unfavourably Bullet theory-Direct effects - A theorythat posits that mass media has direct, powerfuleffects on their audiences - Ex: peoplewhowatch violent movies will becomeviolent Chomsky'sTheory ofLanguage - Languageis a complex specialized skill - Develops spontaneously, no awarenessof underlyinglogic Chomsky'sTheory ofUniversalGrammar - Genetically-inheritedsuper-recipefor constructing alanguage - Very simple set of biologically-encodedpowerfulrules that can producelanguages Coercionvs. Consent - Coercion:threats - Consent:someonewillingly allowing you to do something/tellyou something ○ Best way to govern bigcountries CommunicationClimates - The emotionaltone of a relationshipas it is expressedin the messagesthat the partnerssend and receive - Doesn’tinvolve activities, but focuses on how peoplefeel abouteach other as they carryout the activities Contentand RelationalMessages - Content:messages that communicateinformationaboutthe subject beingdiscussed ○ Ex: "it's you'return""I'm busytonight" - Relational: messages that expressthe social relationshipbetweentwo or moreindividuals ○ Expresscommunicators feelingsand attitudes ○ *differentparts Critical Listening - Listening in which the goal is to judgethe quality or accuracy of the speaker'sremarks - Good forwhensomeoneis trying to persuadeyou to buya product - Guidelinesto becominga better listener ○ Listen to info beforeevaluating ○ Evaluate the speaker'scredibility ○ Examinethe speaker'sevidenceand reasoning ○ Examineemotionalappeals Crowds-Lebon - A groupof peoplein which the emotions,sentimentsand ideas of all memberstake onedirection and each individual'sconsciouspersonality disappears ○ Theygive up themselves ○ Actions are suggested to them - Ex: whenoneperson startsto pack up at the end of a class, everyoneelse does...and theprofloses control over the students(crowd) Cultivation Theory - A theorythat claims that the media shapes- and sometimes distorts - our perceptionsof the world - Build a certain ideologythrough cultivation - Raised on something - Ex: TV has given viewersa perception thatthe worldis less safe and moreviolent that it really is Cumulativeeffects Theory - A theorythat states that media messagesare understood throughredundancyand have profoundeffects over time - Multiple mediumsbuild up on each other; bandwagon CulturalAnthropology-Gillespie - How media affects anthropology - *refer to lecture Critical Languagetheory Communications Page 1 Critical Languagetheory - Fairclough - “Critical means showingup connectionswhich may be hiddenfrompeople– such as the connection betweenlanguagepower, andideologyreferred to above." - “CLS analyses social interactions in a way which focuses upon their linguistic elements,to showhow these elements affect social relationshipsand the hiddeneffects they may have in the system. Demographics/psychographics - d: groupingof visual composition ○ Race, gender,height,sexualorientation - p: targetingwhat makes you you,and howto market to that ○ Like music, travelling, movies Developmentalmodelof relationships - A modelclaiming that the natureof communicationis differentin variousstages of interpersonal relationships - 10 stages; coming togetherand comingapart ○ Initiating ○ Differentiating ○ Circumscribing ○ Experimenting ○ Intensifying ○ Stagnating ○ Integrating ○ Avoiding ○ Terminating ○ Bonding Newspapers-Dornan - *see lecture notes - Evolvingroles Elements of CompetentCommunication - Communicationcompetenceis the ability to maintain a relationship on terms acceptable to all parties - Competenceis ○ Situational ○ Relational ○ Can be learned Elites - Peopleof a higher class - Ex: peoplewhodeal with money,law, etc. students,professors Empathyvs. sympathy - Empathy: walka mile in anotherperson'sshoes ○ Feels your pain,understandsyou ○ Knowwhatmakes you feel good, bad ○ High empathypeople:Theydon’thave to be interested in yourinterests (just ACT like it)  Also capable of manipulation - Sympathy: empathy+ caring ○ Feels your pain and actually cares Ethical persuasion - Persuasionin an audience'sbest interest that doesnot dependon false or misleading information to induce change - Unethicalbehaviors:committing plagiarism Harold Innis - Depending onthe goals in a culture,it influencestheir bias - How ideas start exotic and imaginative fromfar away,as it makes its way to the centre of power,it becomesmoreconformed Hierarchyof knowledge - Hegemony - Gramsci’stheoryof hegemonysays that hegemonyrefersto a situation in which a provisionalalliance of certain social groupscan exert‘total social authority’over other subordinategroups. - This is donenotby physicalcoercion but by winningthe consentof the subordinating groupsby making them accept the dominantdiscourse. - How things are organized ICTs - Information andcommunicationstechnologies - *see lecture notes Ideology - Ideologyapproach:an approach thatclaims that our individualworldviewsaffect ourattitudes Communications Page 2 IndividualDifferences Theory - A theorythat examineshow mass media userswith differentcharacteristics are affected by media - Somepeopleare moresusceptible to sometypes of media messagesthan others ○ Ex: viewer with high education might be susceptible to a message includinglogical appeals InformationalListening - Listening in which the goal is to receive accurately the same thoughtsthe speaker is tryingto convey - Tryto understandsomeone InterpersonalCommunication - *look into lecture notes Language - A collection of symbols,governedby rules and used to convey messages between individuals - Languagesis symbolic - The meaningsare in the peopleand not the words - Languageis rule-governed Linear Model - A characterization of communication as a one-wayevent in which a message flowsfromsenderto receiver - Most importantelement: the communicationchannel(mediumthrough whicha message passes from senderto receiver) ○ Ex: face to face, email, voice mail, texting - Graphon p. 16 MarshalMcLuhan - Thoughtthe worldwas becominga global village; everyoneconcernedwith everyoneelse's business - Hot and cool media ○ Hot: explicit, leave little to the imagination ○ Cool: allusive, leaving an awfullot to the imagination,fill in the blanks McLuhan'sTetrad Ex:automobile - A collective term given to his 4 laws of media 1. Enhancesspeed 1. What doesa new mediumimproveor enhance,make possibleor accelerate? 2. Reversesinto gridlockand traffic 2. When pushed toits limits, the new form will reverseto its originalpositive characteristics. What is the jams reversalpotentialof the new form? 3. Retrievesthe age of knights in
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