CMST Midterm review
Vernacular: Oral tradition or indigenous/national language
Written: complex systems of writing. Accessible to few.
When the two converge a monopoly of knowledge is achieved.
Philosophy- people inhabit both a symbolic and a material environment
Theory of media: Changes in the mode of communication lie at the heart of social,
cultural, and economic evolution.
Time binding societies: Old fashion, religious, not literate, oral tradition, etc…
Time binding media: Oral or hand written
Space binding media: todays, materialistic, time is money, progress valued
Time binding media: easy to transport and work with
Studied English literature and was popular in 1960s. Internet brought him back.
Philosophy- Influenced by Innis. Concerned with rhetoric, the content of objects is less
important than the fact that they exist in culture and society. Content of any medium is
always another medium. Content of speech is thought, writing is speech, printing is
4 Laws of the Medium
1. What does the medium enhance or intensity?
2. If some aspect of a situation is enhanced, simultaneously the old
condition/unenhanced situation is displaced. Whats pushed aside by the new
3. What recurrence/retrieval of earlier actions services is brought into play
simultaneously by the new medium?
4. When pushed to limit, new medium will tend to reverse. What is the reversal
potential of the new form?
1. Enhances privacy
2. Renders horse obsolete
3. Retrieves the knight in shining armour
4. Reverses into traffic jams, suburbs
Objects have a grammar and logic when combined to make statements
General theory of Media: extends and amplifies senses, increases relative importance of
that sense in the sensorium. Can extend the body Hot media: Extends one’s senses in a high definition fashion, that paints an explicit
sensory picture for us, not obliging us to think/use imagination
-Print and written manuscripts
Cold media: Gives little information, requiring recipient to fill in the details. Forces the
use of imagination and to participate in the medium.
-spoken language/dance. Electronic media and TV
UHC Chapter 11: Persuasion
Characteristics of persuasion: Not coercive and is usually incremental
Social judgement theory: We compare things to an anchor surrounded by:
-Latitudes of acceptance
-Latitudes of rejection
-Latitudes of non-commitment
Persuasion is usually shaped around a message and is interactive.
Persuasion can be ethical- Communication is the best interest of the audience and doesn’t
depend on misleading information to changes audiences’ attitude.
Types of persuasion by types of proposition: proposition of fact, value and policy.
Types of persuasion by desired outcome: Convincing and Activating
Persuasion can be direct or indirect
Creating a persuasive message: Set a clear persuasive purpose
-Ad Hominem: attack the person instead of argument
-Reductio ad absurdum- reduction to the absurd
-Post hoc ergo propter hoc- false cause
-Argumentum ad verecundiam- appeal to authority
-Argumentum ad populumo- bandwagon appeal
Analyze audience- Type, purpose, demographics (# of people, gender, age)
Attitudes are learned, based on emotions, influence thoughts and behaviours, strongly
related to beliefs, structured(expectancy-value, symbolic predispositions, Ideology),
Beliefs are underlying convictions about truth, often based on cultural training
Values are deeply rooted in beliefs about a concept’s inherent worth
Adapt to the audience: Identify audience, common ground, organize according to
expected response, neutralize potential hostility.
Building Credibility: Competence, Character, Charisma Interpersonal persuasion: Foot-in-the-door, Door-in-the-face, social exchange, low
balling, cognitive dissonance, that’s not all, fear then relief.
(Shenanigans about writing persuasively and how to write news release).
Language is the natural