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CMST 1A03Exam Review

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McMaster University
Communication Studies
Spencer Pope

Chapter 3: Language (full of noise and problems and can be very inefficient) 1. The nature of language a. Language is symbolic: speech, writing sign language are symbolic All languages symbols -arbitrary construction that represent the communicator’s thoughts b. Creation of symbols that are simple things that represent complex ideas c. Most word are arbitrary d. We look at things differently than they did back in the day since we trained ourselves to look at things in a static way e. Language is governed by rules f. There are many languages (10 thousands) g. Symbols are arbitrary as well i. You have to know the culture and people to get it h. There are things that indicate that language has contributed to the fall of civilization i. There has been movement to create a common language by the UN yet that failed because people enjoy being different j. In language the meaning is not in the word but rather in the people using the word i. Referent, referred ii. The signifier and the signified (you cannot have one without the other) when you hear cat you get an image (who knows what to image might be) iii. Words may also have different connotation (ie rose and love) k. Word may have different meaning depending on the context (you know them in terms of their context) l. The definition of words also change, they are fluid and you need to know the changes to be smart m. Though it is arbitrary, we invent rules to go with them. Language is governed by rules i. Phonological rules a. Rules about sounds, how we pronounce things to make sense ii. Semantic rules a. We learn meaning rules iii. Syntactic rules a. How we constructing thing (order and grammar) b. They are not universal since there are many ways to put things together c. There is a tendency to put things in order of “subject, verb, action” iv. Pragmatic rules a. Represent things in terms of situation 2. The Power of Language a. Can help exclude or include individuals b. It can shape attitudes i. Naming: shapes the way others think of us, the way we view ourselves and the way we act. 1. There are ii. Credibility a. Gives away something about you credentials ie. Doctor b. Influence perception iii. Status a. Language you use gives away something about your status b. Accents and the way you talk can be changed in order to blend in c. Language leads to associating some things with status (for example wine back in the days that were good were to have a French name ) d. Power of speech influences status iv. Sexism and racism a. Language shaped by sex gender and race i. Male words are associated with stronger values ii. Some adjectives have a negative or positive connotation for both men and women. 2. Certain phrase are associated with racial ideas c. The idea of naming things is a powerful thing (ie the naming of terrorists) d. Naming things can either create or limit possibilities e. Part of the way people are controlled has to do with the way they are describe by other people (it establishes what you can and cannot have) f. There is an idea that if you change language people will change yet this is not always true g. Language reflects attitude i. Power a. It puts someone in a position of power b. There is a negotiation over power; those who have less access to resources will use less aggressive word to get what they want. Ie the use of flattery ii. Affiliation a. People will adapt their speech to certain situation and this may betray their affiliation b. People sometimes change their accents and sometimes try to sound like other people c. In certain situation people will use diversions to show that they are not in the affiliation group d. Convergence: accommodating one’ style of speaking to another person, who usually is desirable or has higher status. e. When 2 or more people feel equally positive about each other their linguistic convergence will be mutual. f. Divergence: a linguistic strategy in which speakers emphasize difference between their communicative style and others in order to create distance. Usually people who want to set themselves apart from others use the divergence strategy iii. Attraction and interest a. People use demonstrative pronouns(ex: saying these people want our help (positive) vs. Those people want our help b. Used to show interest or disinterest c. The sequential placing of things also help iv. Responsibility a. To see whether people feel responsibility for a certain issue this can be seen through the use of “I” and “it” b. “It” vs. “I” : I is more responsible than using it c. You vs. I: I is more responsible d. BUT cancels the previous statement e. Question vs. statement i. Do you think you really want to wear that Troublesome Language 3. The language of Misunderstandings a. Equivocal language i. When word of phrase can have a range of meanings ii. I’ll send it to you early next week b. Relative terms: words that gain their meaning by comparison ( is the school you attend large or small) c. Slang i. Form of familiarity amongst people yet can be troublesome for people who don’t understand ii. A language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar subculture or other group. d. Jargon i. Expressions ii. A specialized vocabulary that functions as a type of shorthand among people with common backgrounds and experiences (ex: snowboarders use “fakie” or “mute” to describe maneuvers) e. Overly Abstract language i. Ways in which you take small parts of what is going to express a certain engagement in something. ii. Something that can be described in a number of ways (ex: book can be a textbook, an uhc book, a communications book). iii. Can be easily misunderstood 4. Disruptive Language (Confusion) i. Fact –opinion confusion 1. When people state opinion as facts 2. Factual statements are claims can be verified as true or false. Opinions statements are based on the speaker’s beliefs. 3. If you don’t know the fact don’t state it as an opinion ii. Fact-influence confusion 1. Facts are observable, influence are based on suggestion 2. Inferential statements: a conclusion arrived at from an interpretation of evidence ( ex: fact: he hit a lamppost while driving. Inference: he was day dreaming when he hit the lamppost). iii. Emotive language 1. Language that contain words that sound like they are describing something but actually talk about the intentions of the speaker a. He is a great leader –I think he is a great leader Emotive Language b. Much of our language is embedded with emotions c. A man is forceful---- a woman is pushy 5. Evasive Language a. Euphemism i. To say something bad yet make it sound slightly nicer ii. He passed away iii. When you use these terms to much people see it as a means to cover up iv. Ex: we say someone has “passed” instead of “died” b. Equivocation i. A statement that is not literally false but that cleverly avoids an unpleasant truth ii. Leads to confusions and hurt feelings (i.e. I did not have sexual relations with that woman) iii. Ex: you ask your prof for how u did on your paper. He answers not bad; u will want to know how badly. 6. Gender and Language There are differences between how men and women speak a. Content: certain topics were common to both sexes: work, movies and TV. Female spent more time discussing personal and domestic subjects, relationship, family, health and reproductive matters, weight and food. Men are more likely to discuss music, current events, sport, business b. Reasons for communicating: men and women communicate differently. They use language to build and maintain social relationships. Men like to make conversations fun. Women focus more on feelings. c. Conversational style: women ask more questions. In mixed conversations men interrupt more. Women’s speeches are less powerful than men’s. d. Non-gender variables: 7. Culture and Language a. Verbal communication styles I. Direct- indirect: low context cultures: use language to primarily to express thoughts feelings and ideas as clearly and logically as possible. High context: value language as a way to maintain social harmony rather than upsetting others by speaking clearly. Ex: Koreans II. Language can be Elaborate-Succinct (something clearly and briefly expressed): ex: speakers of Arabic, for instance, commonly use language that is much more rich and expressive. III. Formal-informal: informal: characteristics relationships in countries like Canada is quite different from the great concern for using proper speech in many parts of Asia or Africa. b. Language view and worldwide: culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak. Chapter 4: Listening 1. We don’t spend a lot of time listening 2. It is the one thing that can lead misconception 3. It is taught the least, used the most and learned first. Misconception about listening 1. Listening and hearing are the same thing a. Listening is an engage thing b. Hearing: is the process of in which sound waves strike & eardrum & cause vibration that are transmitted to the brain. c. Attending: the process of focusing on certain stimuli from the environment d. Understanding: the process of making sense of a message, a grasp of syntax of language being spoken, semantic decoding and knowledge of the pragmatic rules. e. Responding: responding to a message consists of giving observable feedback to the speaker f. Remembering: people only remember only about half of what they hear immediately after hearing it. 2. Listening is a natural process a. It is like reading, you must learn to do it b. You must learn to interrogate what you are hearing because it is not a natural process c. A change in pitch, raising voice catch people’s attention 3. Listening requires little effort a. You have to find ways to stay in the moment, it requires effort b. It’s hard to always pay attention 4. All listeners receive the same message a. A lot of things can interfere with the message a person gets Overcoming challenges to effective listening Faulty listening behaviors 1. Pseudolistening a. look like you are listening even if you aren’t 2. Selective listening a. Based on notion of what a person expects to hear 3. Defensive listening a. Taking statements as attacks b. Extremely defensive 4. Ambushing a. Realizing that someone is waiting for you to do something so they can say “gotcha” b. Treat people as a if they are trying to get you 5. Insulated listening a. Trying not to hear certain things 6. Insensitive listening a. Someone is saying something and you choose not to get it b. The elephant in the room 7. Stage hogging a. Listening to someone and then just complimenting them Reason for poor listening (these are barriers to being good listeners) 1. Effort a. It takes a lot of effort to listen to people 2. Message overload a. There is too much coming in b. This sometimes makes us want to tune out 3. Rapid thought a. We think a lot faster than we talk b. Every second there is about 10 words going through your mind c. When someone talks they talk at about 1-5 word a second d. When people talk slow you fill in stuff because you think faster e. You miss it because you think you got it and so you start to do other things 4. Psychological noise a. Thinking about something else 5. Physical noise 6. Hearing problems a. 1/3 of Canadian have a hearing problem 7. Faulty assumption: we often give others a mental brush-off because we assume their remarks don’t have much value. 8. Talking has more apparent advantages a. No one has better things to say than me b. It seems that those in power are always the one that 9. Cultural differences a. Low context communication environment i. People say things and assume what you say will be interpreted the same way b. High context communication environment i. What you say and the context you say it in will bring in a different interpretation 10. Media Influences a. The sesame street effect i. Instead of teaching kids how to read they would do 30 second add (sesame street is brought to you by the letter “b”) ii. People have a short attention span Personal listening styles 1. Content oriented listening a. Look for the content and idea in what is being said b. These people are analytic 2. People oriented listening a. Are looking a level of support from the person speaking b. Can be overly sensitive 3. Action oriented listening a. They think about the response that needs to be applied b. Listen to take action 4. Time-oriented listening a. They don’t like long conversations Informational listening (Technique to be used, try and make sure you get the information you need: these are the things you must do; 1. Don’t argue or judge or judge prematurely 2. Separate the message from the speaker 3. Be opportunistic a. Don’t assume that the person don’t have much to say b. Look for something interesting in what the person id saying 4. Look for key ideas 5. Ask questions 6. Paraphrase a. For clarification repeat in your own words 7. Take notes Asking questions doesn’t mean you understand 1. People tend to assume that you get the same information as they are sending out, so asking clarification question is the best Critical listening (You aren’t criticizing the person but rather critically analyzing what they are saying) 1. Listen for information before evaluating a. See what the person has to say before you judge them 2. Evaluate the speaker’s credibility a. Are they competent to talk about what they are talking about 3. Examine the speaker’s evidence and reasoning a. Recent, trust worth b. Are they open to another point of view 4. examine emotional appeals Empathic listening (Listening to build or maintain a relationship) listen to what they have to say 1. Advising 2. Judging a. Don’t judge them but instead let them figure it out b. Try to shift back to advising 3. Analyzing 4. Questioning a. Don’t question what they are doing but rather ask for clarification 5. Supporting 6. Prompting a. Prompt them to get the information out 7. Paraphrasing a. yet don’t put words in their mouth 8. When and how to help Participant observation and in-depth interview 1. Participant observation a. Walk a mile in their shoe 2. In-depth interview a. Talk to the people and get the information from them b. Listening to what they have to say c. Get in their head d. Gives people a chance to talk A good interviewer: 1. Cares 2. Researches/ knowledgeable 3. Credible 4. Confident 5. Interested 6. Easy going and brave 7. Listening 8. Have a structure 9. Challenge the person Types of questions: 1. Introducing a. To know what you are talking about 2. Follow up 3. Probing a. Go a little deeper 4. Specifying 5. Direct 6. Indirect 7. Structuring 8. Silence 9. Interpreting UHC Chapter5: Non-verbal communication 1. Definition: can be vocal and non-vocal 2. People might place emphasis on non-verbal cues 3. It is almost always present in a way that is bigger than we thing when we are communicating 4. Can be of great value when conveying your message and can also get in the way 5. Most nonverbal message provide cues about the nature of the relationship (if someone looks a certain way it may change the relationship Types of non-verbal communication 1. Can be both vocal and non-vocal 2. Verbal aspect of non-verbal communication: sigh, tone, scream, vocal qualities (loudness, pitch, and so on) 3. Non-verbal aspect: gesture, movement, appearance, facial expression, colors etc Characteristic of non-verbal communication 1. It exists 2. It has communicative values 3. It is primarily rational a. You can train yourself to convey things non verbally, yet it is the hidden message that give away things 4. It is ambiguous a. Can be ambiguous across gender, culture etc 5. non-verbal skills are important 6. Different from verbal communication Differences between verbal and non-verbal communication 1. verbal communication is one directional: it is words 2. non-verbal has a whole bunch of directions : words, gesture , distance etc 3. clarity a. verbal can be misunderstood b. non-verbal communication can be extremely misunderstanding 4. Impact 5. Intentionality a. Non-verbal communication is unintentional b. Verbal is intentional Influence on nonverbal communication 1. Culture a. Culture has different interpretation (tattoos and piercing) b. Generational issue c. Facial expression (sadness, happiness, angry, disgust, surprise etc) 2. Gender a. People have different views based on gender b. Female are better at recognizing non-verbal behavior Elevator rules 1. There are different rules that happen and that when we transgress them it leads to confusion Functions of non-verbal communication 1. Repeating a. To repeat or emphasize 2. Substituting: ex, if your friend asks what up?, u might shrug your shoulders instead of answering 3. Complementing: 4. Accenting 5. Regulating 6. Contradicting a. You can use sarcasm to contradict 7. Deceiving a. When the deceiver wants to hide the information that is being given b. Deception occurs when they have little feeling about the issue c. You must be trained to deceive Types of nonverbal communication 1. Posture and gesture 2. Face and eyes a. If you want something to be noticed put a face in it 3. Voice 4. Touch 5. Physical attractiveness 6. Clothing Type of non-verbal communication 1. Distance a. Intimate (friends, 1 meter) b. Social (workplace) c. Anything more than 3 meter d. Public e. Personal 2. Time a. Chronemics: study of how human beings use and structure time i. use of time expresses different types of communication ii. only certain people are to be waited for 3. territoriality a. physical space people create can make a difference 4. environment UHC – Chapter 6: “Understanding Interpersonal Relationships” What makes communication interpersonal? Communication between 2 or more people or dyadic communication is interpersonal Qualitatively interpersonal communication occurs when people treat one another as unique individuals regardless of the context in which the interaction occurs or the number of people involved Interpersonal communication and the internet  Rely less on face-to-face networks  Loneliness and depression increase with online communication  Closeness can be developed online  Spending time with family and friends is still a #1 priority Content and relational messages  Content messages: messages that communicate information the subject been discussed  Relational messages o Affinity: the degree to which people to which people like or appreciate one another, usually expressed non-verbally o Respect: the degree to which we admire others and hold them in esteem. Ex: you could respect a boss‟s or teacher‟s talents without liking him. o Immediacy: describes the degree of interest and attraction we feel toward and communicate to others. o Control: the amount of influence communicators seek. o Meta-communication: describes the messages that refer to other messages. Dimensions of intimacy in interpersonal relationships: intimacy is used somewhere broadly and can several qualities.  Physical: we have physical closeness right from age and as we grow up it declines. Other forms include affectionate hugs, kisses and even struggles.  Intellectual: not every exchange of ideas counts as intimacy. When you engage another person in an exchange of important ideas, a kind of closeness develops that can be powerful and exciting.  Emotional: Exchanging important feelings Male and female intimacy styles  Women are better at developing and maintaining intimate relationship than men.  Disclosure of personal information is the most important ingredient of intimacy Cultural influences on intimacy  Varies from one culture to another culture Relational development and maintenance  Developmental model o Initiating: involves the initial contact made with another person. Initiating relationship can be very hard for people who are shy o Experimenting: in this stage, the conversation develops as people use „small talk‟ to get acquainted. Ex: we ask where are you from? o Intensifying: expressing of feelings toward the other become more frequent o Integrating: as the relationships changes the parties begin to take on an identity as a social unit. o Bonding: the parties make symbolic public gestures to show the world that their relationship exists. o Differentiating: once two people have formed a commonality, they need to re-establish individual identities. Partners use a variety of strategies to gain privacy from one another. o Circumscribing: although some relationships may reach a plateau of development, going on successfully for as long as a lifetime, others pass through several stages of decline and dissolution. In this stage, communication between members decreases both in quantity and quality. o Stagnating: if circumscribing continues, the relationship begins to stagnate. Members behave toward each other in old, familiar ways without much feeling. No growth occurs. The relationship is a shadow of its former self. o Avoiding: when stagnation becomes too unpleasantyou), parties in a relationship begin to create distance between each other. Sometimes this done under the guise of excuses( ex: I have been sick lately , I can see o Terminating: this where the relationship has gone and the desire to dissociate. The relationship may end with a cordial dinner, a note left on the kitchen table. A dialectical perspective  Dialectical model: suggests that struggling to achieve these goals creates dialectical tensions. Conflicts arise when two opposing or incompatible forces exist simultaneously. o Connection vs. autonomy: we seek involvement with others but at the same time, we are unwilling to sacrifice our entire identity to even the most satisfying relationship. The levels of connection and autonomy that we seek can seek can change over time. o Predictability vs. novelty: stability is an important need in relationships, but too much of it can lead to feelings of staleness. This model reflects this tension. Too many surprises can threaten the foundations upon which the relationship is based o Openness vs. privacy: It is important to have some space in a relationship. Even the strongest interpersonal relationships require some distance.  Dialectical tensions exist when two opposing or incompatible forces exist simultaneously  Strategies for managing dialectical tensions o Denial: people in denial insist that everything is fine, that the inevitable tugs of dialectical tensions really aren‟t a problem. o Disorientation: communication feels so overwhelmed and helpless that they are unable to confront their problems. These people might freeze or fight. o Selection: communicators respond to one end of the dialectical spectrum and ignore the other. Ex: a couple caught between the conflicting desires for stability and novelty might find their struggle too difficult to manage and choose to stick with predictable, if unexciting, patterns of relating to one another. o Alternation: communicators choose alternation to alternate between one end of the dialectical spectrum at some times and other end at other times. o Segmentation: a tactic in which partners compartmentalize different areas of their relationship. Ex: a couple might manage the openness- closedness. o Moderation: is characterized by compromises, in which communicators choose to back off from expressing either end of the dialectical spectrum. o Reaffirmation: Acknowledging that dialectical tensions will never disappear, accepting or even embracing the challenges they present. Characteristics of relational development and maintenance  Relationships are constantly changing  Movement is always to a new place Self-disclosure in interpersonal relationships: must be deliberate, significant and the others wouldn’t know the information being revealed Models of self-disclosure  Altman and Taylor: social penetration model involves breadth and depth o Depth (the shift of relatively non-revealing messages to more personal ones). And breadth (the range of subjects been discussed. Ex: the breadth of disclosure in your relationship with a fellow worker will expand as you begin revealing information about your life away from the job, as well as on-the-job details Characteristics of effective self-disclosure  Self-disclosure is influenced by culture  Self-disclosure usually occurs in dyads  Effective self-disclosure is usually symmetrical  Effective self-disclosure occurs incrementally  Self-disclosure is relatively rare Guidelines for appropriate self-disclosure  Is the other person important to you?  Is the risk of disclosing reasonable?  Are the amount and type of disclosure appropriate?  Is the disclosure relevant to the situation at hand?  Is the disclosure reciprocated?  Will the effect be constructive?  Is the self-disclosure clear and understandable? Deception, hinting and equivocation Lies: Some reasons for lying Reason Example Acquire ‘Oh, please let me add this class. If I resources don’t get in, I’ll never graduate on time!’ Protect resources ‘I’d like to lend you the money, but I’m short myself.’ Initiate and ‘Excuse me, I’m lost. Do you live continue around here?’ interaction Avoid conflict ‘It’s not a big deal. We can do it your way. Really.’ Avoid ‘That sounds like fun, but I’m busy interaction or Saturday night.’ ‘Oh, look what time it take leave is! I’ve got to run!’ Present a ‘Sure, I understand. No problem.’ competent image Increase social ‘Yeah, I’ve done a fair amount of desirability skiing.’ Adapted from categories originally presented in C. Camden, M.T. Motley, and A. Wilson, ‘White Lies in Interpersonal Communication: A Taxonomy and Preliminary Investigation of Social Motivations’, Western Journal of Speech Communication 48 (1984+): 315. Equivocation: equivocal communication has two or more equally plausible meanings Hinting FACE-SAVING HINT DIRECT STATEMENT These desserts are terribly overpriced. You’re too overweight to be ordering dessert. I know you’re busy; I’d better let you go.I’m bored. I want to get out of this conversation. UHC – Chapter 7: “Improving Interpersonal Relationships” Communication climates in interpersonal relationships: communication climate refers to the emotional tone of a relationship. A climate doesn‟t involve specific activities, but instead focuses on the way people feel about each other as they carry out those activities. Confirming and Disconfirming messages Confirming messages: is a response that conveys valuing, caring and or respecting another person. Disconfirming messages: a message that express a lack of caring or respect for another person.  Recognition: it seems easy and obvious, and yet there are many times when we don‟t respond to others on this basic level. Ex: failure to write or visit a friend. School work might prevent you from staying in touch with your friends but nonetheless, if the other person perceives that you are avoiding contact, the message has the effect of being disconfirming.  Acknowledgement: acknowledging the ideas and feelings of others is a stronger form of confirmation. Listening is probably the most common form acknowl
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