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Communication Studies
Greg Flynn

Ch 3 Language 11/25/2013 8:37:00 AM Chapter 3: Listening Language: collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals  Symbolic: way of experiencing the world o How you react will depend on symbols you use to categorize  People create meanings to words: how one understands words o C.K Ogden and I.A Richards: meanings are social constructions in the „triangle of meaning‟ (see pg 85 figure 3.1)  Indirect relationship b/w word and thing represented o Key to accurate use of language: don‟t assume others interpret/share same meanings o Successful communication: negotiation of meaning of statement  Rule Governed o Phonological rules: sound when pronounced  E.g English language…object vs object etc o Syntactic rules: structure of language (how they are arranged)  E.g English sentence; subject, verb, object o Vary within language  Eg Canada vs Atlantic provinces o Technology has changed English  Eg msn lingo o Semantic rules: meanings of specific words  E.g bikes for riding, books for reading  Misunderstandings: words interpreted in 1+ ways o Pragmatic rues: how language is used everyday  Each persons self concept  Episode in which the comment occurs  Perceived relationship  Cultural background  Shapes Attitudes o Naming  Phonetic sound can affect how we regard person o Credibility  Speaking style influences perception  Dr. Fox hypothesis: legitimate speaker who gives false/unintelligible message judged by audience through speakers area of apparent expertise  Credibility arises from scholarly like speech rather than ideas presented  Same for academic writing  Stephen Pinker: ungrammatical sentences found in speeches given at academic conferences than in everyday speech o Status  Power of speech to influence status  Factors creating impressions: accent, choice of words, speech rate, age  Non standard speakers rated lower  Standard speakers: more competent and confident and content rated more favorably  Accents make content less credible  Suzanne Romaine: JK/SK students stated ESL more likely to fail…leads to cycle of less participation and fewer practice in English o Sexism and Racism  Casey Miller & Kate Swift: women lower status then men b/c English defines many non sexual concepts as mal  Fabienne Baider: French adjectives have a positive connotation when used to modify a masculine noun and have negative connotation when used to modify a femine noun  Eg gallant; man: chivalrous/kind, women: morally loose  Alternatives for sexist language  Eg firemen -> firefighters  Names used to stigmatize groups  Rascist language shapes attitudes  Reflects Attitudes o Power  Powerless language  Hedges: I guess/I think/kinda  Hesitations  Intensifiers: I  Polite forms  Tag questions: …?  Disclaimers  Language of oppression: combine powerful/powerless speech  Deborah Tannen: politeness can be face saving  Politeness effective way to get needs met while protecting face of less powerless  Powerful speech varies from culture  Eg Japan, saving face is important o Affiliation  Building solidarity with others  Adapting speech: vocab, rate of talk, # of pauses, levels of politeness  Convergence: accommodating ones speaking style to another person, who usually is desirable or has higher status  = positive about one another; convergence is mutual vs needing approval; adapting speech  divergence: speaker emphasizes differences between their communicative style and others to create distance o Attraction and Interest  Social customs discourage us from expressing like/dislike  Sequential placements isn‟t always significant o Responsibility  Reveal speakers willingness to accept responsibility for a message  It vs. I  You vs. I  But  Questions vs. statements  Misunderstandings o Equivocal  Words have more than one dictionary definition  Serious consequences  Michael Motley and Heidi Reeder: partly explains why men persist in attempts to become physically intimate when women have expressed unwillingness to do so o Relative Words  Gain meaning by comparison  Eg school size  Lead to communication problems if not explained o Slang/Jargon  Slang: language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar co culture or other group  Specialized interests, regionalism; creates sense of solidarity and identity  Age related eg sick  Jargon: shorthand by people with common backgrounds and experiences  Eg snowboarder language, wifi  Saves time but can mystify those who don‟t understand  Jeffrey Katzman: problems with “in development” idea vs desiging program o Overly Abstract  Varying degrees of specificity  Abstraction ladder: range of abstract terms describing event/object  Lower items: person, object, event  Higher items: generalizations  Faster, easier, more useful  Abstract language: lacks specificity/ doesn‟t refer to observable behavior/other sensory data  Cause vagueness, stereotyping, confusion  Avoid using behavioural description: account that refers only to observable phenomena  Who is involved  In what circumstances does the behavior occur  What behaviours are involved  Improve communication in wide range  Disruptive Language o Confusing Facts and Opinions  Factual statements: verified as T/F  Opinion statements: based on beliefs o Confusing Facts and Inferences  Inferential statements: conclusion arrived at from an interpretation of evidence (must identify a such)  Use perception checking to avoide o Emotive Language  Words that sounds like they‟re describing something when they are realling announcing speakers attitude toward something  Evasive Language o Euphemisms  Pleasant sounding term used in place of a more direct but less pleasant one  Eg someone has passed away  Pretentious, confusing, deceptive,  Stephen Pinker: “euphemism treadmill” become taboo words taking on negative connotations o Equivocation  Vague statement that can be interpreted in more than one way  Intentional to avoid lying Gender and Language  Content o Men/women discuss different topics  Common: work, movies, TV, (sex +sexuality reserved for same gender)  Females: more personal and domestic subjects, relationship problems, family, health, reproductive matters, weight, food, clothing, men and other women. Also more likely to fossip about close friends/family  Men: music, current events, sports, business, other men. Gossip about sports figures and media personalities  Reasons for communicating o Language used to build/maintain social relationships o Goal: being friendly o Men more likely to joke o Women more focused on feelings, relationships/personal problems o Julia Wood “talk is the essence of relationships” o Women: pursue social needs o Men: accomplish job at hand..more likely to dominate convo and intrupt to give own experiences  Conversational Style o Women as more questions in mix sexed and men interrupt more o Women: aesthetic o Men: dynamic, aggressive, strong o Women accommodate to men o Sarah Marinelli: indentity of op e writers, more men  Non-gender variables o No significant difference in areas in use of profanity  Occupation and social role influence speaking style  Factors influencing speak: setting, expertise, social roles  Sex role: social orientation that governs behavior o 3 sex roles: masculine, feminine, androgynous o linguistic differences function of sex roles Culture and Language  Verbal Communication Styles o Direct-Indirect  Edward Hall  Low context culture: relies on language to make messages of a relational nature, explicit (express thoughts, feelings, ideas)  Eg Anglo north american  High context culture: avoids direct use of language toe xpress information, especially about relational matters. Instead, members of the culture rely on the context of a message to convey meaning  Maintain social harmony  Eg Asian/middle eastern  Subcultures there are differences o Elaborate-Succinct  Elaborate: rich/ expressive  Eg Arabic  Succinct: silence is valued  Eg aboriginal o Formal-Informal  Informal: Canada, us, Australia, new Zealand  Formal: asia, Africa  Defines social position  Language and Worldview o Linguistic determinism: theory that the worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak  Start early in life  Edward Sapir and Ben Whorf  Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: theory that the structure of a language shapes the worldview of its users  Hopi people no distinction b/w nouns and verbs therefore world is constantly in process  Bad science o Linguistic relativism: idea that language exerts a strong influence on perceptions,  Language use in Anglo-North American Culture o Women Ms vs Mrs  Changing last names (changes= importance on personal relationships, not changed= importance on self) o Africans vs negro vs adrican American vs black (black=acceptable, afrocam American= identity/ don‟t want to assimilate) o Ruth King and Sandra Clarke: newfie  Derogatory  Newfoundalanders unselfconscious/political correctness Ch 4 Listening 11/25/2013 8:37:00 AM Listening is most important form of communication Critical skill in work force Misconceptions  Listening vs Hearing o Hearing: process fo sound waves striking eardrum and causing vibrations that are transmitted to the brain o Listening: brain reconstructs electrochemical impulses generated by hearing into representations of the original sound and gives them meaning o Hearing can‟t be stopped but listening isn‟t automatic o Stages of listening  Hearing  Attending  Paying attention to signals  Understanding  Making sense of message  Responding  Giving observable feedback  Clarifies understanding + shows care  Show your attentive through verbal/non verbal behavior  Communication is transactional  Remembering  People only remember half of what they hear immediately after  Residual message: what we remember after short and long term memory loss  Not a natural process  Requires effort o Mental effort o Passive listening leads to misunderstandings  Don‟t receive the same message o Physiological factors, personal interests/needs, social roles, cultural backgrounds shape + distort data Adult listening skills are poorer than childrens Faulty Listening Behaviours  Pseudo listening o Imitation of true listening in which the receivers mind is elsewhere o Use polite façade  Selective o Responds only to messages that interest him  Defensive o Perceives speakers comments as an attack o Insecure and project insecurities onto others  Ambushing o Listens carefully but only to collect info to attack  Insulated o Screen for topics they want to avoid and ignore  Insensitive o Accept words at face value, don‟t see hidden messages  Stage hogging o Turn topics to themselves o Interrupt o Ways to respond: passive (tune them out) or confront Reasons for Poor listening  Effort o Physical changes during listening: heart rate, respiration, body temp increase  Message Overload o We listen to so many people during the day that it can be hard to stay focused o Pick messages worth your attention to devote time to  Rapid thought o Average person speaks 100-140 w/m o Leaves lots of spare time…used for things other than listening to speaker  Psychological noise o More concerned with personal concerns  Physical noise  Hearing problems o Listening suffers from medical condition (physiological noise)  Faulty assumptions o Egotism that my idea is better than yours  Talking has more apparent advantages o Appears talking we have more to gain o Gain admiration, respect, liking o Men interrupt t control discussion o Women to communicate agreement  Cultural differences  Media influences o Trends discourage focused attention for careful listening Personal Listening Styles  Content oriented o Focus on content of message o Details and analyze o Valuable: evaluate quality when looking at issues from wide range o Annoys people o Takes more time  People oriented o Creating and maintaining positive relationships o Tune into speakers moods, feelings, ideas o Less judgemental o Can lose detachment/ability to assess quality of info  Action oriented o Concerned with accomplishing the task at hand o Most appropriate when you want to take care of business o Not appreciated by those who lack skill to be clear/direct o Minimize emotional issues and concerns  Time oriented o Concerned with efficiency o Throw others off if time doesn‟t value feelings Informational Listening: approach to take when you want to understand another person  Receiving same thoughts o Don‟t Argue/Judge Prematurely  Understand idea before judging o Separate message from the speaker  First started in Greece-messengers got in trouble for bad messages  Consider what a person has to say even if they aren‟t the ideal person to present the info o Be Opportunistic  Value found in wrost situations  Listen with constructive attitude o Look for key ideas o Ask questions  Sincere questions: question posed with the genuine desire to learn from another person  Counterfeit questions: question tat disguises the speakers true motive, which does not include a genuine desire to understand the other person  Make statements  “Are you serious”  Carry hidden agendas  “Are you busy Friday night”  Seek correct answers  “Which shoes do you think I should wear”  Based on unchecked assumptions  “Why aren‟t you listening to me o Paraphrase  Restating in your own words the message you thought the speaker had just sent (cross checking info)  Effective paraphrasing  Change speakers wording  Offer example  Reflect on underlying theme  Advantages  Boost accuracy and understanding  Sincerely trying to understand instead of using non listening styles o Take notes  Don‟t wait too long to write down ideas  Record key ideas  Develop note taking format Critical Listening(evaluative listening): judge the quality or accuracy of the speakers remarks  Appropriate for persuasion o Listen for info before evaluating  Premature judgements when conflicts with beliefs  paraphrase o Evaluate speakers credibility  Questions to accept authority  Is the speaker competent  experience  Is the speaker impartial  Are there biases o Examine speakers evidence and reasoning  Is the evidence recent  Is there enough  Is it from a reliable source  Can it be interpreted in more than one way  Logical fallacies: errors in reasoning that can lead to false conclusions  Examine emotional appeals Empathic Listening: listening in which the goal is to help the speaker solve a problem  Others seek help for personal dilemma  If you want to become better acquainted and show that you care o Advising  Helping response in which the receiver offers suggestions about how the speaker should deal with a problem  Isn‟t always helpful  Listener may not want to hear ideas  Consequence: allows others to avoid responsibility  Advice most welcomed: requested and adviser seems concerned with respecting the face needs of recipirent  Before offering advice, be sure:  Be confident advice is correct  Is person willing to accept  Receiver wont blame you if it doesn‟t work out  Deliver advice supportively  Judging  Reaction in which the receiver evaluates the senders message either favorably or unfavorably  Purely critical vs constructive critiscm  Judgements best received when  Person requested eval from you  Judgement is genuine o Analyzing  Helping style in which the listener offers an interpretation of a speakers message  Help people consider alternative meanings  Problems:  Interpretation may not be correct  If correct, expressing may not be useful  Guidelines  Offer in tentative way, not as absolute fact  Reasonable chance of being correct  Other person is receptive of analysis  Real motive for offering analysis is to help other person o Questioning  Feedback that usually requests speaker to supply additional info in order to clarify or expand the receivers understanding.  Style of helping in which the receiver seeks additional information from the sender.  Some questioning responses are disguised as advice  Best questioning principles:  Don‟t ask to satisfy own curiosity  Be sure wont confuse or distract  Don‟t use questions to disguise suggestions or criticism o Supporting  Response style in which the receiver reassures, comforts distracts person seeking help  Guidelines:  Sincere  Accepting of support  Prompting: using silence and brief statements of encouragement to draw out a speaker  Works well when you cant help others make a decision o Paraphrasing  Reflect both the thoughts and feelings you hear being expressed  Helps pin down real source of concern  Speaker can unload more concerns  John Gottman: “active listening” does not distinguish happy couples from troubled ones  Factors to consider before paraphrasing:  Is it a complex problem  Do you have time and concern  Genuine interest in helping  Can you withhold judgement  In proportion to responses  Consider 3 factors in choosing best helping stylr o Think about situation and amtch respond ot nature of probme o Think about other person o Think about yourself    Ch 5 Non Verbal 11/25/2013 8:37:00 AM Non verbal communication: messages expressed by other than linguistic means Characteristics  It exists o You can notice it without having any formal experience  Communicative value o Impossible to not communicate with it o Unintentional differ from intentional  Eg stammer, blush, frown, sweat  Reveals info  Mostly men fail to recognize messages  Richard Schwier and Shelly Balbar investigated effect of face to face vs distant communication on learning in graduate seminar  Worked for different sorts of learning  Combo of 2 necessary to promote student engagement  Primarily relational o Utilitarian functions o Serve social functions  Identity management  Define relationships  Conveying emotions o Offers cues  Ambiguous o Difficult to interpret o Some emotions easier to decode than others o Decoding skills increases with age and training o Extroverts, women better at decoding o Consider following factors:  Context  History of relationship  Others mood  Your feelings  Different from verbal communication o Complexity  Multiple dimensions o Flow  continuous o Clarity  More ambiguous o Impact  Contradictory and stronger when verbal o Intentionality  Unintentional  Skills are important o Popularity, attractiveness, socio-emotional well being o Persuasive o „emotional intelligence‟ Influences  Culture o Varies from culture to culture o Gaze direction: Canadians looked up when thinking when they knew they were being observed, otherwise looked down. Japs looked down o Edward T Hall: middle east do business at shorter distance o Many non verbal behaviors have same meaning o Charles Darwin: sour expressions evolved as survival mechanisms that allowed early hunters to convey emotional states before the development of language o People adapt behaviours when interacting with different people  Gender o Females more non verbally expressive and better at recognizing non verbal cues o Social factors have mor influence than biology o Eye contact, gestures and posture the same Functions  Repeating o People remember words reinforced by gestures o Emblem: deliberate non verbal behavior with a precise meaning that is known to everyone within a particular cultural group  Substituting o Emblems can replace o Ambiguous o Less intentional  Complementing o Illustrators: non verbal behavior‟s that accompany and support spoken words  Eg apoligizing  Accenting o Emphasizing oral messages o Stressing certain words/pointing fingers  Regulating o Controlling the flow  Contradicting o Eg “im not angry” but face is red and bulging  Deceiving o Saving face o Deceivers make more speech errors, vocal pitch rises, more hesitation o The older we are, the better we get at detecting lies Types  Posture and Gesture o Kinesics: study of body movement, posture and gesture o Communicate vulnerability o Manipulators: movements in which one part of the body grooms, massages, rubs, holds, pinches, picks or otherwise manipulates another part  Signal of dishonesty  Face and Eyes o Most noticed parts of the body o Ekman and Friesen: 6 basic emotion  Surpise  Fear  Anger  Disgust  Happiness  Sadness o Affect blends: combos of 2+ expressions, each showing a different emotion o Western culture looking at eyes shows sign of involvement  Voice o Paralanguage: non linguistic means of vocal expression: rate, pitch, tone, etc o Disfluencies: non linguistic verbalizations such as „um‟, „er‟ and „ah‟  Touch o Increases childs mental functioning o Plays part in how we respond to others o Touch can indicate types of relationships  Functional/professional (dental, haircut)  Social/polite(handshake)  Friendship/warmth (clap on back)  Love/intimacy (hugs)  Sexual arousal (kissing) o What makes touch more/less intense  Part of body that is touching  Part of body that is touched  Length of time  Amount of pressure  Movement afterwards  If anyone else is present  Situation  Relationship b/w the 2  Physical Attractiveness  Clothing o More likely ot obey well dressed o Clothing important in early stages of relationship  Distance o Proxemics: study of how people and animals use space o Cultural norms o Edward T Hall space depends on feelings toward person, context of convo, personal goals  Intimate distance: skin contact- 18 inches  Personal distance: 18 inches- 4 feet  Social distance: 4- 12 feet  Public distance: extending outward from 12 feet  Time o Chronemics: study of how humans use and structure time o Robert Levine says time can communicate  Eg waiting can be an indicator of status, appointments  Low status people must never make more important people wait o Depends on culture  Territoriality o Territory: fixed space that an individual assumes some right to occupy o Higher status= more privacy  Environment o Reflect and shape interaction o Room can reflect productivity Ch 6 Interpersonal Relationships 11/25/2013 8:37:00 AM Characteristics of Interpersonal Relationships  What Makes Communication Interpersonal o Context o # of people involved ( 2 people/dyads) o dyads complete and cant be subdivided therefore, if one person withdraws, communication is done  cant form coalitions o quality over quantity o qualitatively interpersonal communication: people treat one another as unique individuals, regardless of the context in which the interaction occurs or the number of people involved o impersonal communication: strategies used by communicators to influence the way others view them o scarcity of interpersonal relationships contributes to its value  Interpersonal Communication and the Internet o Contextually impersonal o Mediated communication lacks quality o Brittney G. Chenault: internet does allow development of closeness o Health effects: positively related to negative health indicators o Linked to positive peer relationships o Canadians use to maintain personl relationships, using for larger period of time o Immigrants/university students use to communicate with family o Quality of relationships has improved o Deborah Tannen: computer miediated communication provides rich oppurtunities for establishing and maintain relationships  Content and Relational Messages o Verbal statements contains 2 messages  Content messages: focus on the subject being discussed  Relational messages: statements about how the parties feel toward one another. Express the social relationship b/w 2+ individuals. Have more than one dimension o Relation messages  Affinity: degree to which people like one another  Respect: degree to which we admire others and hold them in esteem  Immediacy: degree of interest and attraction we feel toward and communicate to others  Control: amount of influence communicators seek  Metacommunication o Messages that refer to other messages; communication about communication o „it sounds like your angry at me‟ o essential for successful relationship o solves conflicts by shifting form content to relational level o has risks: can be seen in positive light or as bad omen o involves degree of analysis Intimacy  Dimensions o Close union, contact, association or acquaintance o Physically, intellectually, emotionally and shared activities  Physical:in the womb, hugs, kisses, struggles  Intellectual: exchange of important ideas  Emotion: exchanging important feelings  Shared activities: being close to one another  Male vs Female o Women disclose more than men o Women share more personal feelings o Mens lack of feelings were looked at as unwilling to develop close relationship o Through shared experiences men grew their relationships o Men view sex as a way to build closeness whereas women view it as a means to express intimacy o Latino, Chilean and aouthern US Anglo cultures have strong honour traditions, whereas the northern US Anglo and anglo Canadian cultures don‟t  More favourable to women if she stayed in relationship if she was abused  Bears heavier burden  Cultural Influences o Asian and European: showing emotions, expressing affection in public, engaging in sexual activity, respecting privacy o Japs expect more intimacy in friendships o Anglo north americans look for it in romantic relationships o Chinese less likely to be romantically involved o Tawain and jAPAN: don‟t reach out to stangers unless introduced o Canada, New Zealand, Australia make less distinction b/w personal and causual relationships o Kurt Lewin: Anglo North Americans are easy to meet but difficult to get to know, germans are ifficult to meet but easy to know well Relational Development and Maintenance  Relationships develop and shift from: developmental and dialectal o Development perspective  Mark knapp  Developmental model: model claiming that the nature of communication is different in various stages of interpersonal relationships  Stages of friendship o Initiating  Initial contact made with another person  Knapp restricts this to conversation openers  First impressions o Experimenting  Small talk  Knapp points out its four purposes:  Uncovering integrating topics and opens penetrating convo  Future friendship  Safe procedure for indicating who we are and how one can get to know us better  Maintain sense of community  Relationship pleasant and uncritical  Minimal commitment  Culture plays role-chinese/japs mor cautious o Intensifying  Interpersonal relationship develops  Expression of feelings become more frequent  Touching more common  Parties see themselves as „we‟  Express feelings of committment o Integrating  Take on identity as a social unit  Develop own rituals  Give up old characteristics of ourselves and become different people  Sense of obligation of them grows  Expect more from one another o Bonding  Symbolic public gestures ie wedding  Generates social support  Turning point  Public display and declaration of exclusivity makes it a critical period o Differentiating  Re establish individual identities  Want privacy  Begins when party experiences first inevitable stress  Necessary toward autonomy  Success when maintain commitment to relationship while creating space o Circumscribing  Communication decreases in quality and quantity  Dynamic communication becomes static  Withdrawal  Shrinking of interest and committment o Stagnating  No growth  Same old same old o Avoiding  Create distance  Excuses or directly o Terminating  Dissolution  Short or drawn out  Unsuccessful couples: deal with problesm through avoidance, indirectness and less involvement  Successful couples: communicate more directly and confront one another  Dialectical Perspective o Communicators seek important but inherently incompatible goals throughout virtually all of their relationships o Dialectical model: claims that throughout their life time, people in virtually all interpersonal relationships must deal with equally important, simultaneous and opposing forces such as connection and autonomy predictability and novelty and openness versus privacy o Dialectical tensions: inherent conflicts that arise when two opposing or incompatible forces exist simultaneously o Struggle to manage dialectical tensions creates the most powerful dynamic in relational communication o Most powerful dialection tensions:  Connection vs autonomy  Demond morris: each of us goes through 3 stages  Hold me tight  Put me down  Leave me alone  Predictability vs novelty  Openness vs privacy o Strategies for managing dialectical tensions  Denial  Disorientation: unable to confront problem  Selection: respond to one and ignore the other  Alternation: alternate b/w one end of dialectival spectrum  Segmentation: partners compartmentalize different areas of relationship  Moderation: compromises  Reaffirmation: acknowledging that dialectical tensions never disappear  Characteristics of Relational Development and Maintence o Relationships are Constantly Changing o Movement is Always to a New Place Self Disclosure  Process of deliberately revealing information about oneself that is significant and that would not normally be known by others  Must be deliberate  Significant  Others would not know the info being revealed o Models of Self Disclosure  Breadth and depth: Social penetration  Self disclosure, self awareness and relational quality: johari window o Characteristics of Effective Self disclosure  Self disclosure is influenced by culture  Self disclosure usually occurs in dyads  Effective self disclosure is usually symmetrical  Effective self disclosure occurs incrementally  Self disclusre is relatively rare o Guidelines for appropriate self disclosure  Is the other person important to you  Is the risk of disclosing reasonable  Are the amount and type of disclosure appropriate  Is the disclosure relevant to the situation at hand  Is the disclosure reciprocated  Will the effect be constructive is the self disclosure cear and understandable o Deception, hinting and equivocation  Lies  Equivocation  hinting Ch 7 Improving interpersonal relationships 11/25/2013 8:37:00 AM Communication Climates  Confirming and disconfirming messages o Climate determined by the degree to which people see themselves as valued o Confirming responses: response that conveys value, care and respect for another person  Occurs on 3 levels:  Recognition  Acknowledgement  Endorsement o Disconfirming responses: message that expresses a lack of caring or respect for another person  How communication is developed o Spiral: reciprocal communication pattern in which each person message reinforces the others o Escalatory conflict spirals: reciprocal pattern of communication in which messages, either confirming or disconfirming, b/w 2+ communicators reinforce one another o De escalatory conflict spirals: parties slowly lessen their dependence on one another, withdraw and become less invested in the relationships  Creating positive communication climates o Jack Gibb o Gibb categories: 6 sets of contrasting styles of verbal/nonverbal behavior. Arouse defensiveness and a constrastings style that prevents/reduces  Evaluation versus Description  Evaluative communication: sender judges receiver creates  “you language”: language that judges another person increasing likelihood of defensive reaction  descriptive: focuses on speakers thoughts and feelings  I language: decribes speakers position without evaluating others  Control vs problem orientation  Control: sender imposed solution with little regad for receivers needs/interests  Problem: focus on finding solution to satisfies both needs  Strategy vs spontaneity  Strategy: manipulation  Spontaneity:straightforwadness  Neutrality vs empathy  Neautrality: indifference-lack of concern  Empathy: accepting anothers feelings/putting yourself in anothers place  Superiority vs equality  Superiority: sender states they are better than receiver  Equality: sender regards receiver as worthy of respect  Certainty vs provisionalism  Certainty: dogmatism/speakers mind already made up  Provisionalism: sender expresses willingness to consider the other persons position Managing  Nature of conflict o Expressed struggle  Both parties must know the problem exists o Perceived incompatible goals  Solutions do exist, people just fail to see them o Perceived scarce rewards  Not enough to go around o Interdependence  Conflicting people are dependent on one another  Styles of expressing conflict o Non assertion  Inability or unwillingness to express thoughts or feelings in a conflict  Forms:  Avoidance –physical/conversational  Accommodation-giving in o Direct aggression  Embrace conflicts  Hurtful and longlasting o Passive aggression  Expresses hostility in indirect way  George Bach „crazy making‟  Pseudoaccomdators pretend to agree with you  Guiltmakes: gain control by making you feel responsible  Jokers: hide behind humor  Trivial tyrannizers: do small things o Indirect communication  Conveys message in roundabout manner in order to save face for the recipient  kinder o assertion  expressing needs, thoughts and feelings clearly and directly without judging or dictating  maintains self respect  Characteristics of assertive message o Behavioural Description  Uses descriptive rather than evaluative language  Neutral language  Without judgement o Your interpretation of the other persons behavior  Perception checking  Label hunches o A description of your feelings o A description of the consequences  What happens as a result of your behavior  3 kinds of consequences:  what happens to you  what happens to the person your addressing  what happens to others o A statement of your intentions  Communicate 3 kinds of messages:  Where you stand  Requests of others  Descriptions of how you plan to act in the future  Gender and conflict style o Approach conflict differently o Males: aggressive, demanding, competitive o Female: cooperative, less directly aggressive o Females handle conflict with indirect aggression, compromise and maintain relational harmany o Men more likely to withdraw  Cultural influences on conflict o Degree of assimilation o Collectivist cultures: concerns of the group more important o Low context cultural style: premium on assertiveness o High context value self restraint  Methods of conflict resolution o Win-lose o Lose-lose o Compromise o Win-win  Steps in win win problem solving o Identify your problem and unmet needs o Make a date o Describe your problem and needs o Partner checks back o Solicit partners needs o Check your understanding of partners needs o Negotiate a solution  Identify and define the conflict  Generate a number of possible solutions  Evaluate the alternative solutions  Decide on the best solution o Follow up on the solution Social Media and Communication theory 11/25/2013 8:37:00 AM Social Media  Form of mediated communication that permits people to develop and categorize networks of friends and acquaintances by various dimensions of affinity  Amplifies  Defined: social environments that are meant to be used at little or no cost to publish and share messages and information genereated by participants  User generated content: social media content that is generated by their users, not by large organizations Social Media vs Traditional Mass Media  2 things in common: o contain messages o use a channel  differs: social media must have software infra structure that allows users to build and maintain interpersonal relationships o accessibility easy access to global communication  immediacy o instantaneous  changeable o re-edit  community media: form of media that blends qualities of both social media and traditional mass media  social networking siet: social medium that allows users to create virtual social communities in which they share content, exchange messages and build relationships  media convergence: tendency for large corporations to own and integrate various types of media outlets so that content can be shared and rebroadcast. Some critics say that this reduces consumer choice for info Zines  Self published, non commercial publication, either in print or electronic format that covers specialized or unconventional subject matter  Through zines people seek form of repsentation that they don‟t find in mass media content Geo Cities  Founded by David Bohnett and John Rezner  Encouraged to design own web page in cities modeled after existing urban areas  Problems o Unavailable to most parts of world o Limited oppurtunities for feedback o One way communication o Lack of 2 way interactivitymade it fall short of third element f social media: relationship and community building Web 2.0  Like filing cabinets; static object that you can put a file in and take out Types  Blogs o Web which an individual/org enters, in reverse chronological order, regular commentary on events  Personal  Professional  Corporate  Vlogs  blogosphere  Microblogs o Entries are short and in the moment  Social networking webs o Build networks of friends  Wikis o Webs that enable collaboration and sharing of info by creating and editing linked web pages via a web browser  Social news aggregators o Webs that allow registered used to post news stories to electornic bulletin boards  Social bookmarking websites o Registered users to organize, share and manage teir lsits of bookmarks of internet content  Social photo and video sharing o Youtube o Flickr Social media, the Self and Society  Catalina l toma o Social networking tools have a strong self affirming value. o Participants asked to spend time on own or strangs fb and given negative feedback o Those who were on theres were more accepting of the negative feedback  Shanyang Zhao, Sherri Grasmuch Jason Martin o Show rather than tell  Cornell University and Palo alto research o Impact on impression management of users status updates on fb o While people are successful at projecting positive image through status, they go too far and are perceived as self important  Addam N Johnson o Those who use fb for social connection gratification use more frequently o Those who use it for content, spend more time on the site Geotagging: act of tagging a piece of posted content with the GPS coordinates of its author at the moment of posting Social media, public relations and marketing  Chris Farias model of success o Authenticity+cool item+timing  Social currency: ideas that will be popular enough that opnion leaders will want to redistribute Impact on traditional media  Newspapers o Moving toward electronic  Tv o Watching more online  Radio o Commuters/workers Using it Effectivley  Permamenent community stauts  Portfolio of achievements  Digital footprint Dangers  Permanent  You have lost control of image/text  Not really your friends Protecting yourself  Think twice before posting  Beware of peple taking pics of you  “what happens in vegas stays in vegas” doesn‟t apply Key theories  Innis: time binding and space binding media o Space binding: describe types of media such as tc that collapse space by conveying info that is meant to reach as many citizens as possible over long distances o Time binding media: storytelling that collapse time by figurativel bringing their audiences back to the original moment of communication  McLuhan o The medium is the message  Media extends our senses ie tv extends eyes, clothes skin o The tetrad  4 laws of media  what does a new medium improve or enhave  when pushed to its limits, the new form will reverse to its original positivie charcteristics  what earlier action is brough back into play  what is pushed aside  is automobile  enhances speed
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