Metaphors we Live By Handout.doc

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Communication Studies
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Terry Flynn

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Metaphors We Live By What is a metaphor? A figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable. The essence of a metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another Our Ordinary Conceptual System • The way we think or act is metaphorical • Our body language for example alludes to the way we are feeling without actually directly saying how we feel • “Our concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world and how we relate to other people” We are Not Aware of our Conceptual System Were not aware of how we are influenced because it happens every day and subtly and we act automatically as a result of these subtle influences Argument is War “We see the person we are arguing with as an opponent, we attack his position and we defend our own. We gain and loose ground. And we plan and use strategies.” • When we say we attack his position, we are not physically attacking his position it is a manner of speech, or a metaphor • Argument is partially structured understood performed and talked bout in terms of war • Arguments usually follow typical patterns; there are typically things you do and do not do in arguments -opinion --> conflict --> winner/loser/tie -a battle characterizes the argument and the language follows suit Metaphorical Systematically: Highlighting and Hiding • The very ideology that allows us to understand one concept in terms of another (understanding that arguing is constructed like a battle sometimes) can impair us from seeing other from seeing other aspects of a concept that are inconsistent Metaphorical expressions in everyday language give us insight into the metaphorical nature of concepts that structure our every day activities Time has a value and has is considered a commodity Time is valuable because it is not unlimited and is required for us to accomplish anything Typically associated with work in which we get paid for our time, hence time has a value and the metaphor time is money is applicable you’re wasting my time this gadget will save you hours with the metaphor Conduit Metaphors • Conduit metaphors entails that the words and sentences have meanings in themselves, independent of the context or speaker • Ideas (Objects) are put into wo
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