classics. 1A03 docx

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Communication Studies
Spencer Pope

Midterm Review Classics 1A03 Minoan Civilization A pre-Greek civilization Aurther Evans named the Culture. Lacked Greek that lacks the Diagnostic language but had Linear A features for traditional Greek culture 3000-2000BC Pre-Palatial period Minoan Chronology 2000-1700BC Old Palace Period Minoan Chronology 1700-1450BC New Palace Period Development of palaces as centers of religious, political and economic power. Minoan culture flourished and then collapsed due to an earthquake in 1450BC Mycenaean - Monumental architecture Civilization - Cyclopian - Home of Agamemnon - Used linear B 1650-1450BC Mycenaean Burial: - Grave circle A had a stele marking the grave Grave circle A with spirals inscribed on it - Funerary masks where also uncovered used for male burials - Mask of Agamemnon 1400-1300BC Mycenaean Larnax - Burial vessel made of terracotta or other materials. - Often decorated in ululating women - And sometimes warriors may be depicted on the vessel 1300BC Treasury of Atreus Mycenaean Tholos Tomb - Family tomb with multiple depositions - Opened and re-scaled - Tholos=round building - Domos= road/entranceway leading into tholos 1300BC Uluburun sank Merchant ship with varied cargo - Oxhide ingots: 354 Cypriot Copper - Bun Ingots: 120 Cypriot - Tin Ingots: both bun and Oxhide - Some marked - Glass ingots - 9 Canaanite Amphoras - 150 Canaanite Jars - Mycenaean-type Swords - Wooden writing board 1300-1200BC Palace of Nestor at Megaron palace where people conducted business. Pylos Antis was as a two column room of prestige and can be accessed only by certain people. Terracotta disc in the center acted as a hearth center of sacrificial activities. 1300-1200BC Pictorial Style Made narratives possible on vessels 1250BC Fall of Troy VIh Showed signs of siege mentality excavated by Schliemann in 1873 - Likely an earth quake weakened the city 1250BC Mycenae lion's gate Fortification wall was constructed. Monumental scale that was designed to impress. Relieving Triangle was an arrangement of blocks around the lion slab but pressure on the wall as opposed to the primary lintel block 1200BC Mycenaean vase Three handled jar had a pattern style and could be quickly painted. Close style = compact design 1200BC Warrior vase A Mycenaean vase with a pictorial style. Has ululation (fear and dispair) caused by the departure of individuals 1200BC-1180BC End of the Bronze Age Collapse of Mycenaean hegemony - New population brought new technology Iron Tools - Practice of cremation developed 1100BC-800BC Iron Age and Dark ages Last prehistoric period before the wide spread development of writing 1050-900BC Proto-Geometric style Derived from Mycenaean culture - Circles and triangles on vessels - Zig-zag patterns - Decoration limited on body of vessel, often placed to emphasize form 900BC-700BC Geometric style vessels produced between 900-700BC - Had animals - Athens lead producer Diagnostic features - Meander - Wave pattern - Lozenges - Squares and triangels 900BC Geometric Burial in Amphora holding the cremated remains of a warrior Athens - Weapons found with the amphora indicate warrior status - Ritualistic practices indicate respect for individual 900-700BC Dipylon Cemetery at Human figures begin to appear on vessels Athens 750BC Dipylon Amphora Funeral monument with ululation 600BC Rise of Greek Doric and Ionic columns Architectural Orders - Doric Order = Frieze, Architrave, Column capital: Abacus and Echinus Column shaft without base - Ionic Order = Volute capital, Architave x3 steps, column base is concave with convex profile, paital with volutes spiral scrolls, shaft with fluting 600-480BC Archaic Period Greek Archaic pottery= Athens =Attic style - Development of Black figure style Black Figure Technique - Black gloss (slip) applies - Reserve area (orange-red) = Slip has been removed leaving figures in silhouette - Detail added through incision mainly 580BC Kleobis and Biton at Stocky proportions Muscular frames Delphi - Twins that died honouring mother - Statues commemorate their untimely and heroic deaths 566BC Athens Panathenaic festival from 566 BC Greater panathenaic every four years - Reco- temple on Athenian Acropolis - Herakles and sea monster Triton 550BC Moschophoros from Dedicated by a man named Rhonbos Athenian Acropolis - Votive that emulates act of sacrifice - Archaic period style 600-480 BC - an open cloak 530BC Peplos Kore Kore = female - Freestanding statue - Set up on Athenian Acropolis - Garment is Peplos - Moving toward more realism - Has pierced ears may have had bronze earrings 530BC Red figure style Switch in the colour scheme so figures in red and black background 525BC Siphnian Treasury Treasury of Siphnos - Wealthy city-state - Had silver mines - Were able to construct extravagant vault at Delphi - Iconic style with caryatids replacing columns - Sculpted frieze runs around building pedimental sculpture - East pediment o Dispute between Herakles and Apollo over Delphic tripod, Zeus in center - East Frieze o Gods and warriors o Views of combat 500BC Herodotus Greek Historian 500BC Thucydides Greek Historian 490BC Athenian Treasury Doric order with focus' on the labours of Theseus and Herakles - Built after the Battle at Marathon victory over invading Persians - Doric order - Distyle in antic - Doric frieze with sculpted metopes - Kleobis and Biton c.580 BC o Small statues that had muscular proportions and were ordered Priestess of Hera was helped by her sons as they took the yokes and pulled her to the sanctuary 480-323BC Classical period Persian sack of Athens until the death of Alexander the Great 478-474BC Delphi charioteer Dedicated by polyzalos, tyrant at Gela (in Sicily) - Victor of Chariot race - Dedication = thank you offering for victory - Early Classical style sculpture: example of Severe style - Direct, bold, immediate, human - Just over life size figure made of bronze - Highly detailed and had eyes - Very life like 475BC Kritios Boy Found on the Athenian acropolis - statue sculptor is Kritios o Transition from Archaic to Severe style (480- 450 BC) Objective of Greek sculpture shifts from Kosmos to naturalism accurate depiction - Requires realism coherent, whole, and believable - Movement - X-like composition ... chiastic 470-457BC Temple of Zeus 6x13 columns with transition in architecture into classic era - Colossal size - Cult statue of Zeus - Inspired by the Cryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon - Made from stone ivory and gold 450BC Rebuilding the Acropolis Perikles - Builds Partenon, Proylaia, and Erechtheion 448-432BC Parthenon Large for the time and had more sculpture than previous buildings - 8 x 17 columns - 4:9 ratio for Parthenon - Notable among Greek temples for scale - Design front and rea
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