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2PR3 – Public Relations Exam.pdf

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Communication Studies
Terry Flynn

  1   2PR3 – Public Relations Exam Chapter 10: Reaching Diverse Audiences The Nature of Public Relations: • Diversity is the most significant aspect of the mass audience in the US • Expanding international audience creates new public relations challenges – technology can be used to segment a mass audience and compile valuable demographic information. o PR professionals can employ search engines and digital databases to conduct both primary and secondary research to narrow down on desirable target audiences • Internet provides an efficient and effective way to move beyond geographic limitations in PR messages – also requires quicker responses to it’s changing audiences • Strategic public relations target key audiences: youth, tweens, adults, seniors, gender and lifestyle groups (LGBT) Age Group Audiences • Youth Market o Generation Y (E-Generation): born between 1981-2003 Millennial Generation § Consumers of electronic media § Have increasing buy ing power and establish attitudes towards brands § Children and youth influence their parents buying decisions, have purchasing power of their own and ultimately mature into adult consumers § o Generation X: born between 1965 -1980 – defined as independent, te ch savy, and resourceful o Baby Boomers: people born between 1946 -1964 § High birth rate and prosperity following WWII o Seniors: important opinion group and a consumer market with special interests , less convinced and demand value in the things they buy Gender/ Lifestyle Audiences • Women: always been an important and distinct target audience from marketing and public relations standpoints o 61% of workforce have more undergrad degrees than man o “multi minded” o have great influence as opinion leaders • LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Community) o are defined as emerging demographic and lifestyle group o gay community has high brand loyalty, purchasing products that target advertisements to gay consumers and support gay rights • Religious Groups o Are growing in market and political power (eg. Catholic and evangelical Chirstian religious groups) Ethically Diverse Audiences • Are growing 5X faster than the general population   2   • PR must be sensitive to the special issues, concenrs, or interest of specific national and ethnic audiences • Diversity Media o The number and reach of minority media channels has increased • Hispanic o Fastest growing ethnic group in US o Increasingly regular uses of social media Global Audiences • Challenges: language and cultural differences, unique aspects of the local, political, economic, and industrial structures o China undergoing revolutionary growing market, with political, social and industrial changes. • Places like Russia, China, India, Lat in American, and Europe Matching the Audience with the Media • Print for detail and contemplation o Most effective for absorption of detail and contemplation by receivers o Newspaper aimed at an audience of varying educational and economic levels – family reading o Magazines different in terms of context, time frames, medthods of operation • Radio and video for flexibility and specific targets o Reach specific audiences Rapidly and cost efficient o Speed and mobility – programming is more loosely structured • Television for emotional impact o Persuasive cultural impact o Videos/ Flims – YouTube social media is more cost effective allows for direct interaction • Online Media for customized information for target audience– Social Media – for reaching diverse audiences in new ways o Able to communicate without using gatekeepers o Communicating with gen X//Y o Viral environment allows to multitask Chapter 11: The Mass Media News Releases • Most common tactic • The dissemination of information to mass media news releases ar e the key sources for a large percentage of newspaper articles • SEO- Search Engine Optimization techniques (news releases online ) o Selecting key terms to make content easily retrievable o Google AdWords – or Google External Keyboard lists good words to use for optimum search-ability o SMR (Social Media Release) – social media tags with high res. Videos and graphics to appeal users § Usually formatted so information is easy to scan, utilizing bullets and listes of ready made quotes instead of dense text • Content of a News Release o Lead paragraph o Inverted pyramid approach o Written in journalistic style   3   o Start with most important part of the story and fill in details descending in order of importance • Publicity Photos o Often accompany news releases to make story more appealing o Photographs draw attention and are “read” o Make photos appealing to gatekeeper – consider: quality, subject, composition, contect, action, scale, resolution Media Advisories, Fact Sheets, Media K its, and Pitch Letters • Media Advisories o Alters are memos to let press know about something they want to cover (interview opportunity, local person etc.) o Common format is short, bulleted lists rather than long paragraphs, answers 5 W’s + H questions, an d short paragraph telling person who to contact • Fact Sheet o Often distributed with media kit or news release to give additional background information about product, person, service or event (more detail and background info) o Contain pertinent information about an organization and its products or services o Variation of a factsheet would be FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) • Media Kit o Contains: news release, news feature, fact sheet, background info, graphics, executive bios, basic contact info o Usually prepared for major events and new product launches o Also called Press Kits which are electronic – providing a CD or posting a media kit online to enable access to multimedia content such as photos, videos, links to for information • Pitch Letter o Short notes or letters sent to journalists to draw their attention to a story o Brief form of the content of the media kit to the editor Interviews with Journalists and News Conferences • Interviews o Person to person talk typically resulting in published story of 400 -600 words o Direct and indirect quotations, works in background material, and injects personal observation • News Conference o Two-way communication o Different types of news conferences – can be offence matter or defensive device – most are positive intent o Two types: spontaneously, araising out of a news event , or regularly scheduled conference held by public official at stated times even when there is nothing special to announce • Planning and Conducting a News Conference o Do not call conference for routine news o News conferences should be held only when there is news that requires elaboration and clarification o Time Is valuable and should not be wasted The Media Party and the Media Tour   4   • Press Party: social gathering that ends with a pitch • Three Types of media Tours: o Junket: a trip where journalists are invited to visit compa- host usually picks up the tab for housing, transporting, and feeding them o Familiarization Trip: “Fam Trips” used to promote tourist destinations, major resorts, in hope the writers will write about their good time they had o Company Reps: travel to talk person -to-person with journalists, The Reach of Radio and Television • Radio (News Releases) o Printed radio should be 30-60 min in length o Must be newsworthy and not too commercial o Strong short sentences • Audio News Releases (ANR) o A popular format includes an announcer and a quote (sound bite) from a spokesperson. o No longer than 60 seconds o Actuality: reads the entire ANR and is not identified o Sound Bite: announcer reads the release but a quote called sound bite is also included (to satisfy customer or company) § Better than straight because it comes from a “real person” • Public Service Annou ncement (PSA’s) o Unpaid announcement that promotes the programs of government or voluntary agencies or that serves the public interest o To inform the public about such topics as health issues or upcoming civic events o Length can be 30,60,20,15 seconds long o Allows for flexibility • Radio Media Tours (RMT) o Involve an organization’s spokesperson being interviewed from a central location by journalists across the country o Series of one-to-one interviews • Television • Video News Releases (VNR) o Produced in a form at that television stations can easily use or edit based on their needs o Expensive o Have great potential for reaching large audiences o May cost $20,000 -$50,000 to make o 4-6 weeks to script and produce o B-Roll a type of news release where the station is given only footage • Satellite Media Tours (SMT) o Series of prebooked one -to-one interiews from a fixed location via satellite with a series of television journalists or talk show hosts • Personal Appearance s o Talk shows and magazine shows § Advantage is the opportunity to have viewers see and hear the organizations spokesperson without the filter of journalists and editors interpreting and deciding what is newsworthy o Booking a guest –they must have appealing personality, be knowledgeable and give short conscise answers   5   • Product Placements o Promoting companies products and services o Called Plugs Chapter 12: The Internet and Social Media The Internet • Internet: the first medium that allows almost anyone to send messages to a mass audience without the message being filtered by journalists and editors • Embrace of the internet has taken less time than the growth of any other mass medium in history • Mass Media Characterized by: o Centrialized/ top down o Costly to publish o Controlled by professional gatekeepers (editors and publishers) o Primarily one-way communication with limited feedback channels § This has been changed by the INTERNET • New Media System features: o Widespread broadband o Cheap or free, easy to use online publishing tools o New distribution channels o Mobile devices (camera phones, smart phones, tablets) o New advertisement Leveraging the Power of the Internet • Attractive characteristics of the internet for PR professionals o Easy updating of materials o Interactivity o Access to depth of information o An infinite amount of space for information o Cost-effective o Ability to reach niche markets o Information available on 2/7 basis • 4 Reasons why visitors return to a website: o high quality content o easy to navigate o quick to download o frequently updated • Online newsroom 5 Key Components o Contact information o Corporate background o News releases and media kits o Multimedia Gallery o Search capability • Interactivity o Pull Concept § Users “pull” information from websites from the various links that are provided § Consumers are constantly interacting with the siting and are “pulling” the information most relevant to them. § Users have total control over information they call up and how deeply they want to go into a subject o Push Concept   6   § Information is being delivered to the user (consumer) without active participation § Traditional mass media are representative of using push tactics (Radio, print, television) o Another Interactivity is having feedback areas where users can contact through e-mail or message boards • Cost- Effectiveness o Calculating ROI (Return of Investment) on a website can show that a website is well worth the investment and c ontributes to the bottom line. o Evaluates the companies online success Webcasts, Podcasts, and Wikis • Webcasting o More than 90% of public companies use webcasts for everything from news conferences to employee training. o They save time and money by eliminating the need for participations to travel • Three Major Advantages of Podcasts o Cost-effectiveness o 24/7 access o portability • Wikis o Can be used in PR campaigns and employee relations o Webpages that can be open and edited by anyone Social Media • Online technologies, practices that people use to share opinions, insights, experiences, and perspectives with each other • Social media conversation is not organized, not controlled, and not on message o Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, Youtube • Blogs o The first widespread application of social media o Blogs have become mainstream sites in terms of both their numbers and their influence o Free form sites o Extremely cost effective way to reach a large number of peop le § Words to Blog by: • Transparent, timely, original, relevant, views o 3 kinds of blogs: § Corporate or Organizational • Are usually written by an executive and represent the official voice of the organization • Opportunity for the public to post opinions § Employee Blog • Concerns of liability or the potential for proprietary info to be released • Guidelines for employee blogs § Third Party Blogs • Organizations must monitor and respond to the posting on other blog sites • Facebook o Most popular social networking s ite   7   o Many organizations tend to establish a presence on these sites § Audience engagement § Consumer involvement o Public relations materials need to be low -key and creative for these sites o Not a good place for controversy • Twitter nd o 2 most popular social med ia network o used as a distribution platform for late breaking news, to refute a ciral rumor or to provide updates on a developing situation o markting and promotional purposes § promoting products and services, discounts etc. • YouTube o YouTube is the premier social networking site for posting and viewing videos o Clips should be interesting, creative, and somewhat humorous to get attention from target audiences o The Rising Tide of Mobile - Enabled Content • adoption of smartphones, tablets , and mobile devices sky rocketed • most widely adopted communications device on the planet • Texting o Broadcast text – companies use to send brief message to all employees at the same time o Subscription Based – users sign up to receive text messages from groups or organizations the same way they sign up for RSS feeds to computers o “One-off” – where the cellphone user sends a text to source to get an answer to a question • Apps Everywhere o Apps have expanded the capabilities of smartphones to tap into information that consumers can use in their daily life o They are simple, cheap, and don’t require internet connection • QR codes: Just a scan away o Easy access to a variety of websites and apps Chapter 13: Events and Promotions / Chapter 16: Entertainment, Sports and Tourism A World Filled with Meetings and Events • Meetings and Events o Are vital public relation tools o Provide an audience with face -to-face interaction § Five senses: hearing, sight, touch, smell, taste o Detailed planning and logistics are essential effective meetings and events o Marketing and public relations can foster brand awareness and loyalty with meetings and events • Group Meetings o Organizers must consider a number of factors: § Meeting Location • Must be the right size for the audience   8   • Too large makes it look like people didn’t come and too small makes it uncomfortable and crowed • Meeting identification, lighting, charts, screens or monitors, projectors and video equipment, seating and table, speakers podium, audience and speaker aids § Meeting Invitations • Website announcement, flyers, email, newsletter • Six weeks is a typical lead time to send out invitations • Should inclue: Date, time, place, purpose, highlights, and a way for the person to accept or decline § Getting the Meeting Started • Setting up registration if it is large • If not too large a personal welcome • Name tags prepared and extras incase § Speakers • Should be selected at least a month before date • Chosen because of their expertise, crowd -drawing capability, and speaking ability – good idea to listen to prospective speaker before hiring them § Meals • Breakfast lunch or dinner • Fixed menu, buffets, etc. • Banquets o Elaborate affairs that require extens ive advance planning § Considerable logistics, timing, and teamwork required o 100-1000 people in attendance o well convinced time lines are crucial § Creating a Budget for a Special Event • Facilities, food service, decorations, design and printing, postage, recongnition items , Miscellaneous , transportation, entertainment, publicity, office expenses • Receptions and Cocktail Parties o The focus should be interaction, not speeches o Advance planning and logistics are required o Cost-effective way to celebrate or p ut on a event o Easy to start but hard to stop, close bar and make announcement • Open House and Plant Tours o Required thorough planning and routing, careful handling of visitors, and training of personnel who will come in contact with visitors o Commonly one day affairs o Plant usually has to shut down because of the number of people it will not be possible to keep doing regular work o Employees should understand the purpose of the event and be trained properly for that day • Conventions o Timing, location, facilities, exhibits, program, recreation, attendance, administration   9   o Getting people to attend a convention requires two basic things: 1) an appealing program and 2) a concerted effort to persuade members to attend o Convention Programs: § A convention may include large meetings, cocktail parties, receptions, tours, banquets § Require skill of professional managers who can juggle multiple events and meeting over period of several days § Special arangements should be made with the media if it is a large event • Trade Shows o Are the ultimate marketing event o Facilitate one-on-one communication with potential customers and helps generate sales leads o Ex, CES (Consumer Electronic Association) holds one in Vegas o Exhibit Booths § Should be designed for maximum vi sibility § Provide face-to-face social contact § Attract journalists § Allow organizations to demonstrate their products and sales representatives to directly talk with potential customers § Cost of a basic booth is %50,000, including design, construction, transportation and space rental fees larger more elaborate ones can cost up to easily 1 million o Press Rooms and Media Relations § Prepare an organizations media kit § Media relations work should start before the show § PR need to be creative in pitching ideas and sharing why their company’s products or services merit a journalists time • Promotional Events o Promotional events encourage sales, increases organizational visibility, make friends, and raise money for a charita ble cause o One essential skill for organizaing promotional events is creativity – o Corporate sponsors: Another kind of event § Can establish brand identity § Olympics is one of the world’s most prestigious corporate sponsorships o Celebrity Appearances § Determine which “personality” fits the particular product or situation § “prominence” is a news value § can be a major budget item $100,000 -$200,00 for an appearance o Promotional event logistics § Event organizes should brainstorm ideas and perform plans that are creative as well as realistic and pratical Chapter 16 – Entertainment, Sports, and Tourism Public Relations in Entertainment, Sports, and Tourism • There is a growing interest in careers in sports, entertainment and hospitality among public relation stude nts • The Entertainment Industry  10   o Involves serving as publicist o Damage control is a key task o Ethical issues • Promoting a Personality o Preparation § Get newsworthy facts through interview § Develop a short bio § Develop a media kit § Determine what about the personality is to be “sold” § Decide target audiences § Make telephone and e -mail pitches o Conducting the campaign § News release and photo opportunities § Public appearances Promoting an Entertianment Event • The “Drip-drip-drip” Technique o A steady output of information to advertise an event • The Movie Industry o Planters and bookers o Planters : deliver to media offices publicity stories about individual clients and projects o Bookers: who place clients on talk shows and set up other public appearences o Product Tie ins • Sports Publicity o Seek to arouse the public interest in teams and players, sell tickets to games, and promore the corporate sponsors that subdize events o Sports publicists embrace the normal PR toolbox but they also try to stir fan emotion o Sport PR -Need to be experts in relationship management, media relations, ethics and social responsibility, community realtions, crisis communications, marketing communications, consume r (fan) relations, player relations and promotion and international public relations and
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