EXAM REVIEW CHAPTER 11
The Mass Media
• to generate story idea 77% of journalists use press releases and 80% use public
• majority prepared for distribution by email or electric
• PR newswire claims multimedia news releases get 80% more views than stan-
dard email and people 3.5 more times likely to share
• must know Search Engine Optimization (SEO) techniques
• selecting key words for people to search - use keywords within 65-70 charac-
ters in headline. Google AdWords gives you advice on what words to use
• Google External Keywords- gives you other similar words
• Google Trends- gives you certain information about why terms are searched
Multimedia news release AKA social media release (SMR) - these
releases are pioneered by the major electronic distribution services such as Busi-
ness wire and make it possible to embed a news release with high-resolution pho-
tos and graphics. Electronic distribution services team up with Google and Ya-
hoo to maximize exposure.
• some journalists prefer a basic news release as just text in an email. 75% re-
ported this on a Twitter survey.
• Publicity Photos - more people read photographs than read articles. News-
papers and magazines need a minimum of 300 dpi a.k.a. dots per inch for repro-
1 • Media advisories and media alert: Notes to reporters and editors about
a news conference or upcoming events. Advisories can also let media know about
an interview opportunity, alerts can be sent either alone or with accompanying
news release. Most common is short bulleted list.
Fact sheets: serve as a crib sheet for journalists when they write the story.
About an organization.
• Media kit elements a.k.a. Press Kit: News release, News feature, Fact
sheet, Backgrounder, photos, biographies, contact information.
• Pitch: short letters or e-mails written to editors that will grab their attention.
E-mail, phone, tweet. A pitch lets them know about the content of a media re-
PR casebook: Coca-Cola, saving the Arctic with iconic brand mascot
• Corporate responsibility (CSR)
• 2011, Coca-Cola polar bears voted onto Madison Avenue advertising walk of
fame. Using polar bear since 1922 so Coca-Cola made a CSR effort to save the
habitat of polar bears. Partnered with world wildlife fund in campaign called Arc-
tic home. Changed cans from red to white, donated $3 million and fans were in-
vited to text $1 donation. Partnered with 7-Eleven to create an app based contest
called the snowball effect where players gained points by checking into seven
eleven and by retrieving codes from cans.
Interviews vs. news conferences: both are uncontrolled, but the public re-
lations practitioner initiate interactions in the news conference whereas the journal-
ist initiates interactions in an interview.
• Interview: neither at the person being interviewed or the public relations rep-
resentative should asked to prove entry this would be considered censorship.
• News conference: Quick widespread dissemination of information and en-
sures that all news outlets hear the news simultaneously
2 •Press conference is responding to difﬁcult situations: the mortiﬁcation
strategy–to admit that the situation is bad and that the organization is doing
everything in its power to correct it
•Spontaneous news conference: the winner of the Nobel Prize meets the me-
dia to explain his award-winning work
•Brieﬁng: regularly scheduled conference held by public ofﬁcial at stated
times even when there is nothing special to announce, example: the daily US
State Department brieﬁng.
•Magazine interviews usually explore subject in greater depth they often ap-
pear in question and answer form and require prolonged taped question
The media party and the media tour
•Press party: maybe a lunch a dinner or reception. At the end of the socializ-
ing period the host rises and makes a pitch: A brief policy statement followed by
question and answer period. Guests usually receive press packages. This does not
necessarily result in favorable media often the reporter comes to develop poten-
tial news contacts and to learn more about the companies ofﬁcials.
•Three kinds of media tours:
•The trip a.k.a. Junket where reporters are invited to inspect the compa-
nies manufacturing facilities in several cities, to ride a new ﬂight route, or to
watch previews of a new television program
•Familiarization trip a.k.a. fam trips: Offered to travel writers and edi-
tors by the tourism industry in hopes that they will favorably reported their expe-
riences. Who pays? Major dailies forbid employees from accepting any gifts, how-
ever smaller dailies can. PRSA code of ethics: forbid gifts and free trips that
have nothing to do with covering a legitimate news event.
•Organizations executives travel to key cities to talk with selected editors
Radio and television
•Each week the radio reaches ninety two percent of Americans age 12 and
older with an audience of 234 million. 51% of US adults get local news from the
3 radio at least once a week and the average American commutes 50 minutes to
work each day
•Radio: the length of the printed radio news release needs to be indicated it
should be 30 to 60 seconds to read. Uses a more conversational style with empha-
sis on strong short sentences allowing the announcer to breathe between
thoughts. 10 words per sentence.
•Audio news releases (ANR): 2 types
•Actuality: someone with a good radio voice reads the entire announcement
•A second approach: an announcer reads the release but a quote called a
sound bite is included. This is better because an announcement comes from a
real person. The audio recording is usually delivered as an MP3 ﬁle and is ac-
companied by a script.
•Public service announcement PSA: often by nonproﬁt organizations. Is
unpaid announcement that promotes the programs of government or volunteer
agencies that serve the public interest. TV stations provide air time to charitable
and civic organizations. Written in N double spaced format like radio news re-
leases. Their length can be from 10 to 60 seconds. Usually produce several at dif-
ferent lengths for stations to choose. Local community issues and events for most
likely to receive airtime followed by children’s issues.
•Radio media tours RMT: spokesperson conduct the series of one on one
interviews from central location with radio announcers from across the country.
A public relations practitioner a.k.a. a publicist in this situation books telephone
interviews with DJs. Convenient and low-cost.
•Television: 24.5 million Americans watch new stations, 80% watch televi-
sion for breaking news, the average American watches 34 hours of TV per week.
Four approaches to get in organizations viewpoints on local television:
•Media alert or advisory
•Video News release VNR
4 •Phone, text, E-mail the assignment editor and make a pitch to have the sta-
tion do a particular story
•Video news release VNR: 5000 produced annually in United States. Cost
between $20,000 and $50,000 for production and distribution. Good if there’s
potential for national distribution and multiple pick ups by television stations. It
takes 4 to 6 weeks to produce. In a crisis situation it can be produced in a matter
of hours or days. Firms usually outsource production. VNR package should in-
clude 2 to 3 minutes of B-Roll: video only without narration. Typical B-roll in-
cludes additional interviews, soundbites, and ﬁle footage. Often only produce B
roll. They often reach a larger audience with YouTube. Public relations profes-
sionals must clearly identify the source.
•Grand Rapids, Michigan created its own PSA on YouTube. Cost $40,000,
10 minutes long. PR Newsweek gave the tactic it’s highest PR play rating of in-
•Satellite media tours SMT: the television equivalent to a radio media
tour. A series of pre-booked one on one interviews from a ﬁxed location usually a
television studio with a series of television journalist or talk show hosts. Or to do
interviews on location, for example traveling to 25 different interview spots to
conduct the same interview.
•Talk shows and magazine shows: many radio stations and television sta-
tions have adapted an all news and talk format. Oprah Winfrey show was num-
ber one syndicated daytime talk show. Then Dr. Phil and live with Kelly. 4 mil-
lion viewers a day. Consider audiences. Beneﬁt of having a spokesperson speak
without the ﬁlter of journalists and editors into be on air longer.
•Booking a guest: Booker is the contact person also known as A talent coor-
dinator for talent executive. The booker may ask for video clips of the spokesper-
sons appearances from previous TV shows.
•Product placements: sometimes called plugs, negotiated by product publi-
cist in talent agencies. Came of age during the movie ET. Reese’s Pieces are used
5 to lure the alien home. Sales skyrocketed. Youth get ideas about what products to
buy from watching television shows. Apple products appeared in 30% of num-
ber one movies in 2010.
•Broadcast interviews: 3 requirements: preparation, concise speech, Re-
laxation (Mic Freight).
6 CHAPTER 12
The Internet and
Tweeting the revolution: 2011 Egypt
•Use Facebook to schedule protests, Twitter to coordinate, And YouTube to
tell the world. “we are all Khaled” Facebook page used to exchange information.
Occupy Wall Street took inspiration from the Arab Spring. 330,000 tweets every-
day related to Wall Street. Individual reporters became citizen journalists. Amer-
ica’s ﬁrst true social media uprising. .
•The Internet: 2 billion users. Has changed characterization of mass media
in the past 500 years: the mass media was centralized/ top-down, costly to pub-
lish, Controlled by professional gatekeepers known as editors and publishers, pri-
marily one-way communication.
• 1. widespread broadband. 2. cheap. 3. new distribution channels. 4. Mobile
devices. 5. new advertising campaigns.
•2011: 2.8 million e-mails were sent every second.
Leveraging the power of the Internet
•The Internet helps public relations do a better job: content is up-
dated more quickly, the web allows interactivity, online readers can take deeper
into subjects, Great amount material can be posted online, cost-effective on a
global basis, organizations can reach audiences on it direct basis, 24/7 access.
•4 main reasons why people return to a website: high quality content,
easy to navigate, quick to download, frequently updated.
7 •Vocus, A supplier of public relations software says an online newsroom
should have the following ﬁve key components: Contact information, Corporate
background, News releases and media kits, multimedia Gallery, Search capabil-
Interactivity: key component - “pull” pulling information from various
links on sites. Users have control on the information they call up and how deeply
they want to go into subject. Push - information is delivered to consumer with-
out active participation, ex. TV , Newspapers, radio.
•Cost-effective: websites contribute the bottom line when calculating re-
turn on investment (ROI). Savings by eliminating print.
•Virtual public relations: example–offering an online video tour of the
•Webcast: 90% of public companies use webcast a.k.a. webinars. Save time
and money by eliminating the need to travel. A digital media ﬁle distributed over
the Internet for playback on portable media players. Usually audio only but also
video podcasts. Three reasons: cost-effective, 24/7, portable.
•Wikipedia policies: content be factual, non-promotional, and created by
sources other than those who work for the company.
•Social Media: A shift from vertical to horizontal communications on the
web- one of the most dramatic revolutions in history.
•70% of all digital information in the world is now created by consumers.
•Blogs: ﬁrst widespread application of social media. First called weblogsre-
ﬂecting their roots as website maintained by individuals. Cost effective way to
reach large amounts people. Some blogs break news stories. Tumblr used dur-
ing Wall Street. Corporations use blogs to become more transparent.
•Three types of blogs: corporate or organizational blogs, employee blogs,
8 •Corporate or organizational blogs: represents the ofﬁcial voice of the
organization. Some blogs are outsourced to public relations ﬁrms. ex. McDon-
ald’s “open for discussion” blog which talks about corporate responsibility.
•Employee blogs: many organizations encourage their employees blog.
Many place restrictions on blogging.
•Third-party blogs: those who mention the organization on their own blog.
Companies often comment on these blog posts.
•57% of people talk to people more online than they do in real life.
•Facebook: 1 in every 9 people on the planet or 750 million users. most per-
suasive and popular social networking site on the planet. A third of Internet us-
ers are on Facebook. Establishing connections through emphasis on humor,
Short video clips, music, contest, and audience participation. Coca-Cola has
32.7 million Friends.
•Twitter: Second most popular social media network. Google is the most
solid brand. Public relations professionals often use Twitter for late breaking
news and to provide updates.
•YouTube: one in four Americans watch a video online everyday. 90% of
Internet trafﬁc will be online videos in the next 3 years. Hurley Davidson’s You-
Tube channel posted video that detailed brand devotion to Latino bikers who
call themselves Harlistas.
•Flickr: used for–executive head shots, images of corporate artifacts and his-
tory, product shots, infographics, photos of company events.
•Mobile enabled content: buy 2014 mobile Internet should overtake desk-
top Internet use. One half of searches take place for mobile devices. There will
be 7.4 billion mobile connections 2015 and only 7.2 billion people in the world.
•Texting: three levels of texting for organizations: Broadcast level–used to
reach all employees at the same time. Subscription based–user sign-up to re-
ceive text messages from groups or organizations. One-off–A cell phone user
sends the text message to a source to get an answer to a question.
9 •Apps: the Apple Store has 400,000 Apps.
•QR Codes: two dimensional matrix bars codes allow smartphone users to
scan the matrix and immediately be connected to website or apps. I
10 CHAPTER 13
•Mr. bubble turns 50 with a splash: world’s largest bubble bath. Gave Mr. Bubble
a twitter account and a Facebook facelift. Developed relationship with key mom
bloggers, hosted a twitter party.
•Meeting and events: individuals use all ﬁve senses, Important to foster
brand awareness and loyalty
•Group meeting: meeting location and size of room, Meeting invita-
tions, getting the meeting started (may need registration desk, A representa-
tive of the sponsoring organization should be available at the entrance and
should greet if there is a small attendance, otherwise chairperson should greet
the audience in their opening remarks), speakers (should be booked one month
in advance), meals (lunch should never be later than 2 PM, the organization
should guarantee a certain number meals plus or minus 10 percent)
A printed program outlining the seminar should not be printed until the
last moment possible.
•Banquets: fairly large and formal functions. Having a well-known personal-
ity to speak usually boosts ticket sales, But very expensive ( $5000-$10,000 for
Business type talks, $15,000 or more for minor entertainment celebrities,
$100,000 for more well-known politicians and celebrities), often need to ﬁnd cor-
porations for businesses to sponsor the event or buy tables for employees. Con-
tact the catering or banquet manager three or four months in advance.
•Receptions and cocktail parties: cocktail parties precede a lunch or din-
ner and encourage people to relax and socialize. It is cost effective with focus on
11 interaction. A hosted bar means that the drinks are free. There should be one
bartender per 75 people.
•. Open houses and plant tours: conducted to develop favorable public
opinion of the organization. Typically 1 day affairs but if there is large atten-
dance and maybe extended to more than one day. It may also be a public event
announced the general media. Publicity material should be distributed at least
one month in advance. Many plants offer territories such as producers of con-
sumer goods (beer, wine).
•Conventions: A series of meetings usually spread over two or more days.
People attend conventions to exchange information, to meet people with similar
interests and to discuss a common problem, and to enjoy social interchange.
Most conventions for health and national membership groups and trade associa-
tions so they are held out of town. Often held in Las Vegas.
•Convention planning: should be planned months before, for large national
conventions in may begin several years ahead. The main components in plan-
ning convention are: 1. Timing, 2. Location, 3. facilities, 4. Exhibits, 5. program,
6. recreation, 7. attendance, 8. administration.
•Increasing event attendance with web tools: E-mail invitations (generates
a list of yes and no, often has links to registration site, can track reservations on-
line), electronic tracking, social media (Twitter is great, LinkedIn, Face-
book is the best to promote festivals, YouTube generates meaningful conversa-
•Convention programs: usually has a Basic theme (developments in aids re-
search, connections). Look for speakers to have something signiﬁcant to say
about the topic. Electronic versions of programs are offered now.
•Getting people to attend the convention requires two basic things: an
appealing program, and A concerted effort to persuade members to attend.
•Trade shows: the ultimate marketing event. 65 million people attend trade
shows on an annual basis. The Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is held
annually in Las Vegas and illustrates the power and inﬂuence of a trade show. It
12 is only open to industry professionals. three thousand companies show their new
• Exhibit booths: the major expense at the trade show, starting at $50,000 to
$1 million. The organization has 10 seconds to attract visitors. It attracts poten-
tial customers and journalists. Hands-on demonstration, more cost-effective than
making individual sales calls.
•Hospitality suites: Adjunct to exhibit booths. Used to entertain key pros-
pects, Give more in-depth presentations, And talk about business deals. The
main purpose is to generate leads that ultimately result in product sales.
Foursquare: geolocation app where users check into locations using mobile
devices. When a user has checked in and then you more than anyone else during
the last 60 days he or she becomes the mayor of the venue and can earn badges.
Many businesses use this technology. Businesses offer discounts or specials when
followers check in at the business. Walgreens has 70,000 foursquare followers. Lo-
cation is a major part of social strategy and foursquare helps this.
•Media rooms and media relations: every trade show has a pressroom where
the various exhibitors distribute media kits and other information to journalists.
As many pre-show interviews and brieﬁngs should be arranged as possible.
•Promotional events: must be creative, Throw out the idea of having
ribbon-cutting, think of a theme or idea that ﬁts the situation and is out of the or-
•Corporate sponsorships: another kind of event–sponsored events that
are covered by the media such as the Olympics. Coca-Cola is an ofﬁcial sponsor
of the Olympics. More than 40% of Olympic revenues are generated from cor-
•Celebrity Appearances: prominence is considered a basic news probably
•Promotional event logistics: security, liability insurance, Clean-up.
13 CHAPTER 14
Bono: PR man for the world’s poor- criticized for his ONE campaign which only
donates 1% of its funds to charity. his fame is a magnet for investigation and criti-
cism. The foundation focuses on cause-related public relations and consequently
gets a bad rep. ONE argues that Global problems of hunger and disease requires
media attention spurred by celebrity endorsement.
•Global public relations a.k.a. international public relations: the
planned efforts of an organization, institution, or government to establish and
build relationships with the publics of other nations. these publics are various
groups of people who can effect and are affected by the operations of a particu-
lar ﬁrm, institution, or government. Public relations has spread to most countries
especially those with industrial bases and large urban populations.
•Public relations developments in other nations: prospers in nations
that have multiparty political systems, considerable private ownership of business
and industry, large-scale urbanization, and relatively high per capita income lev-
•China: explosive growth and public relations. Second largest market for pub-
lic relations in Asia after Japan. The United States and other European nations
began exporting public relations expertise to China in the 1980s. Today almost
every global public relations ﬁrm has a Beijing ofﬁce. Chinese ﬁrms offering low-
cost and extended reach.
•Thailand: receives a great deal of foreign investment and is an assembly cen-
ter for automobiles and computer hard drives. It attracts international tourism
14 and has A number of public relations ﬁrms. Thailand tourism has faced several
•Indonesia: the fourth most populated country in the world. Functioning de-
mocracy with free media. Public relations has exponential growth. Even alcohol
and cigarettes , Which are major taboo in the predominantly Muslim country,
seek media coverage and event management services from public relations ﬁrms.
Low education, Broadcast media ﬁlls the gap. The country ranks number one on
Twitter and number two in Facebook users. There is a talent gap in public rela-
tions. Business schools are offering programs and public relations.
•Japan: public relations is considered media relations. public relations ﬁrms
work with reporters clubs that ﬁlter and process all information.
•Australia, Singapore, and Hong Kong: mature public-relations markets.
Offer specialized services, more attention is given to strategic planning and inte-
grating communications for overall corporate objectives.
•Mexico: small public relations ﬁrms provide product publicity. Major growth
in public relations is driven by multinational companies operating in the country
with high expectations for sophisticated campaigns. drug cartel has dampened
•India: A large population with a need for public relations, but training and
education continue to be a major concern.
•Brazil: largest economy in South America, 1000 public relations ﬁrms. few
global public relations ﬁrms but this situation is changing. Lack of issue manage-
ment, public affairs, internal communications, and market communications.
•The Russian Federation: rise of market economy and private enterprise
for the development public relations after the Soviet Union collapsed. However,
Government restrictions on media interfere with the ability for PR to thrive. Gov-
ernment transparency is also a problem. Press and journalists are still very de-
pendent on supplemental income so news articles can be bought easily. There is
not much credibility.
15 •The middle east: public relations is relatively immature and lacks trained
personnel. Government censored media and fear of transparent communication.
Dubai has positioned itself as the major business center and public relations will
continue to expand.
Africa: A mature market with a long tradition of public relations education.
Nigeria has made strides in developing public relations industry alongside boom-
ing oil industry.
•International corporate public relations: globalization is an increas-
ingly connected international relationships that affect culture, people, and eco-
nomic activity. Public relations, particularly marketing have facilitated interna-
tional distribution of goods and services by striving to open all markets to outside
competitors. The 21st century typiﬁed by globalization which has increased im-
portance of international public relations. Almost one third of all US corporate
proﬁts for generated through international business.
Global campaigns can originate from any corner of the world, They must
ﬁnd different expressions to be effective in different markets. free traveling, free-
thinking ideas are the new life blood of global PR.
•Five cultural dimensions: 1. Power distance (assesses people’s tolerance
for centralized power). 2. individualism/collectivism (Asia gravitates to-
ward collectivism, United States towards individualism). 3. masculinity/
femininity (contrast between competitiveness and compassion/nurturing). 4.
uncertainty avoidance (how well the society tolerates ambiguity). 5. long-
term/short-term orientation (willingness to consider traditions of the past
and carry them into the future. China tend to have long-term orientations,
United States has short-term orientation).
•Languages and cultural differences: non-Western cultures are high-
context communication societies, Meaning of the spoken word maybe im-
plicit and based on the environmental context and personal relationship rather
than on explicit categorical statements. Example, Asian nations. American com-
munication is considered low context, Great emphasis is placed on exact words
(legal documents are the explicit word).
16 •US corporations in other nations: the total amount expended on public
relations and lobbying abroad is unknown because US don’t have to report such
expenditures to US Government. Public relations professionals working for cor-
porate giants are considered international public relations because their work in-
volves many nations. Drobis, former senior partner and chair of Ketchum, says
that the era of relationship building is over. Instead, the 21st-century should be a
time of conﬁdence building–public should not only trust corporations to do
the right thing, but also believe globalization will beneﬁt everyone.
•David Drobis outlines challenges American companies based abroad. The
major challenge is to better communicate the economic advantages of
globalization to the world’s people:
•Companies: must realize that international capitalism has a negative conno-
tation in many parts of the world and ﬁrms have to correct this.
•Nongovernmental organizations: are an important seal of approval and
branding. NGO’s are working with corporations on sustainable development
•International institutions such as the world trade organization (WTO)
are unfairly criticized as being an democratic, but fairly criticized for being non-
•US Giants: Walmart, ExxonMobil, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, General Elec-
•Happiness ambassadors at Coca-Cola: seek out what makes young peo-
ple happy in different cultures and document it all , Leveraging every facet of so-
cial media to generate an ongoing dialogue. For Coca-Cola broader worldwide
marketing campaign called “Open happiness.” Inviting fans to contract the team
offering recommendations. This brings the message of unity which is difﬁcult to
convey with traditional advertising. 68% of respondents stated that online pro-
grams lead them to exclusively love Coke.
17 •Public diplomacy: the process of information dissemination, is primarily
intended to present American society in all its complexity so citizens and govern-
ment of other nations can understand the context of US actions and policies.
•United States Information Agency (USIA): created by Pres. Eisenhower
in 1953 to be the primary agency involved in shaping America’s image abroad.
After World War II there was a threat of communism. The height of the Cold
War USIA had a budget of 900 million and 12,000 employees. USIA abolished
in 1999 and taken over by US department of public affairs and diplomacy. After
September 11, 2001 United States wanted to invade Afghanistan and Iraq, so
once again they wanted to win the hearts and minds of the world people. the
Obama administration emphasized public diplomacy and stresses youth ex-
changes to maintain long-term ties. 520 million for world wide public diplomacy
and 633 million for educational