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week 8 - chapter 8.docx

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McMaster University
Teal Mc Ateer

Chapter 8: Culture & Socialization Pre-Orientation & Entry Issues  Realistic Job Preview (RJP) and The Psychological Contract  Developing commitment in the new recruit  Escalation of new commitment to new 1. Visibility o Commitment to a behavior increases the more visible/observable it is o Telling people 2. Explicitness o Making them visible to others 3. Irreversibility o Is perceived – feel like they don’t want their decision to work to be undone 4. Personal volition o cement/glue binding you to a decision; your will to remain in the organization  Understanding Culture/Climate  Orientation  Socialization  Types of Cultures When you start a new job, how do you know what types of things are acceptable or not (e.g., attire, language, etc)? What is Socialization? • Process by which an employee begins to adapt to the values, norms, and beliefs of the organization and its members (culture) – learned through osmosis – Involves learning the organization’s climate and “learning to fit in” • Climate (below the waterline) – “members’ shared perceptions of the contingencies between behaviours in the work environment and their consequences” – climate is understanding of X & Y relationships – Learning what behaviors are expected, acceptable, unacceptable ** Strategic Importance of Socialization (pg., 254 ex 8.1) • Sets the tone of employment relationship  Clarifies expectations / how things are done (lowering dissonance)  Socialization methods  Realistic job previews  Employee orientation programs  Socialization tasks  Mentoring  Proactive tactics  Teach you about attitudes/knowledge and behaviors necessary to survive  Reasons: o Proximal outcomes (soon)  Learn things  Master tasks  Social inegration  Role conflict to work through  Role ambiguity  Person/job fit  match b/w an employees knowledge, skills and abilities and the requirements of a job)  person-organization fit  match b/w an employees personal values and the values of an organization o Distal outcomes (in the future)  Job satisfaction  Organizational commitment  Organizational identification  Job performance  Decreases stress, turnover  Increase OCB (organizational citizenship behavior) • Reduces anxiety for new employees – Will I fit in? Will I enjoy the job/coworkers/etc?  Effects employee attitudes and behaviour – Job satisfaction, commitment – Job performance Socialization methods  proximal socialization outcomes  distal socialization outcomes Socialization vs. Orientation • Socialization – Process of employees adapting to organization (culture/climate) – Long-term process, often informal (doesn’t end because players/variables change) – Continual indoctrination process  Orientation – Program that informs new employees about their job and company – Short-term, often formal **Stages of Socialization (3 stage model of socialization) 1. Anticipatory (Pre-Arrival) • At cusp of entry • Employees begin with certain expectations about organization and job • May be unrealistic – if unmet, result in dissatisfaction, turnover, etc. • Realistic Job Preview (RJP) may be helpful  Info about job demands and working conditions – both positive and negative aspects 2. Encounter (2 & 3 organizational member) • Employee has started new job • In the job • Inconsistencies between expectations and reality emerge (dissonance) • Needs info re: policies, procedures, etc. E.g., via Orientation program - Organizational issues, policies, etc. - Benefits - Introductions - Job Duties • Benefits of a good orientation program  Shows organization values to employee  Reduces employee anxiety and turnover  Reduces start-up costs  Clarifies job and organizational expectations  Improves job performance  (Deciding if you’re going to stay/go) 3. Change (Settling in) – Role Management • Inconsistencies start to get worked out • Employee begins to identify with organization • Transition from being an “outsider” to feeling like an “insider” • Often involves taking on new attitudes, values, and behaviors to align with organization’s • Misalignment = dissatisfaction and turnover • Modification – (change your job) / potential for conformity (fitting in/changing to integrate into work) **Socialization Tactics  Organizations structure the early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another  CONTEXT TACTICS • Collective vs. individual 1. Collective = what we put people through as a group – bull pen 2. Individual = watching people individually • Formal vs. informal (on the job) 1. Formal = tailored for a specific group 2. Informal = not segregated from any other organization member  CONTENT TACTICS  Sequential vs. random 1. Sequential = steps in an exact order 2. Random = steps ca
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