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Teal Mc Ateer

Leadership What is Leadership? • The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context.  Managing people to get the day-to-day tasks done  To inspire people to do the extraordinary • Strategic leadership: leadership that involves the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization Formal vs. Informal • Formal – Legitimacy – Role/position (title) – Organization gives them the power (authority)  Informal – No legitimate title – Positive power always (positive power = manager employee – Critical knowledge and experience Leaders vs. Managers • The role of the leader and the role of the manager are not the same. • Is it possible to be a manager yet not have influence?  Yes  Traditional managers: do perspective acts (plan, delegate, organize, compensate  Leaders: go beyond the traditional tasks **Transformational vs. Transactional • Transformational – Leadership that provides followers with a new vision that instills true commitment – Arouse intense feelings – Inspirational – Rely on personal sources of power – Charisma – Able to develop common vision – Constantly creating opportunity – Love to give autonomy (trusting)  Transactional – Leadership based on a straightforward exchange relationship between leader and followers – Motivate by exchanging rewards for services – Manager-like role – No long-term impact Trait – Innate Behaviour – Can be Trained Universal (1) Transformational Leaders (2) Socio-emotional & Task Leaders Situation Contingent (3) Fiedler’s Contingency Model of (4) Path –Goal theory Leadership Vroom-Yetton’s Model  after (4) teals 2013  Universal – leaders are leaders because of some enduring aspect of their personality/behaviour (use it all the time)  situation doesn’t matter  Universal trait – exercise your gifts all the time (1)  Situation contingent theories – leaders adjust the expression of traits/behaviors to fit the demands of the situation (teals situational sensor) (1)– great man approach - charismatic - you’re born this way (2)why universal theories emerged - emerged because there weren’t enough born leaders - research on leaders who were found to be effective and learn their behaviors - 2 grouping of behaviors  task people  hard/soft (socio-emotional) (3)natural prepotency Universal Leader Influence  Universal Trait Theories or Approaches  Transformational leaders  belief that certain individuals are destined to be leaders regardless of the situation.  traits: individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability, and personality.  limitations of the trait approach  Same leader no matter where they go, who they deal with  No matter where you go you will be affected  Born leader no matter who the audience is  Universal Behaviour Theories/Approaches  Task Leader (Above the waterline) o A leader who is concerned with accomplishing a task by organizing others, planning strategy, and dividing labour.  Socio-emotional leader (below the waterline) o a leader who is concerned with reducing tension, patching up disagreements, and maintaining morale  Same as task leaders/socio-emotional leader from different studies:  The Ohio State Studies o Initiating Consideration: the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern for employees (socio-emotional) o Initiating Structure: the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment (task leader)  Managerial grid theory: concern for people (soft/hard), concern for production (task)  U Michigan study: o Product-oriented (task), people-oriented (soft/hard)  Universal behaviors: task oriented and you never change Situation-Contingent Leader Influence  Contingency Trait Theories/Approaches  Fiedler’s Contingency Theory o The association between leadership orientation (more task/oriented) and group effectiveness is contingent on how favorable the situation is for exerting influence o Only sending people to specific situations based on their strengths (task OR socio-emotional) o Propensity to hard vs. soft leadership skills o “We need to coach leaders to pay attention to the situation” 1. Leadership orientation  Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale  LPC: A current or past co-worker with whom a leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a task.  High  people oriented  Low  task oriented  Controversial  Determined whether you were more task or people oriented 2. Situational favourableness  leader-member relations the extent to which the group trusts/respects leader and will follow his/her direction  task structure  degree to which task either clearly specified and defined or ambiguous  position power  extent to which leader has official power to influence simply because of where he is in the hierarchy 3. The Contingency Model  how do you figure out which situation is most favourable for your style  favourableness high i. leader-member relations  good
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