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week 10 - chapter 13.docx

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Teal Mc Ateer

Chapter 13 - Conflict and Stress What is conflict?  A process that occurs when one person, group or organizational subunit frustrate the goal attainment of another  Levels:  Intrapersonal o Manifested in stress – physiological, psychological & behavior  Interpersonal o Conflict between 2 people  Intragroup o Conflict within in a group  Intergroup o Conflict between 2 groups ** Traditional view of conflict  Thinks “conflict is bad”  They don’t want any disruption in the office because it might lead to adverse effects on productivity  Increases distraction on the job  Negative, dysfunctional, detrimental  Distracts managers  Managers motivated to eliminate or suppress conflict (not what organizations want today) Contemporary View of Conflict  Benefits of conflict are recognized  Realization that suppressing conflict can lead to further negative consequences  Conflict is seen as inevitable rather than avoidable  Conflict:  Catalyst for change  Organizations will be forced to re-examine goals and reset priorities  Forces organizations to move from status quo to innovation  Aim is NOT to have 0 stress **Causes of Organizational Conflict 1. Group identification and intergroup bias (we/they phenomenon)  Differences in goals, priorities and an understanding cannot be met  Assigned people in groups randomly or on the basis of some character (eye color)  “in-group” positive view; “out-group” less positive  intergroup bias 2. Interdependence  Individuals/subunits are mutually dependent on each other to accomplish their own goals  potential for conflict  Sequential: an order o (he’s waiting for your work to do his work in order for another person to do their work)  reciprocal: waiting for work to be done between 2 people 3. Difference in power, status and culture  powerhoder driving a team in a way that others don’t like o I have more knowledge than you so don’t become involved  Power o If dependence is one-way, potential for conflict increases  Status o Differences provide conflict when people of lower-status are dependent on those of higher-status  Culture o When 2 or more difficult cultures develop inan organization  clash in beleifs and values => conflict 4. Ambiguity  Not clear on rules, tasks, don’t know what’s expected 5. Scarce resources Types of Conflict 1) Relationship conflict (the who)  Interpersonal tensions among individuals that have to do with their relationship per se, not the task at hand Ex. Personality clashes 2) Task Conflict (the what)  Disagreements about the nature of work to be done 3) Process Conflict (the how)  Disagreements about how work should be organized and accomplished Conflict Dynamics  Changes within (intragroup) each group:  Loyalty to group more important  Increased concern for task accomplishment  Autocratic leadership  Group structure more rigid  Group cohesiveness increases  Changes in relations between groups: (intergroup)  Information concealed  Interaction decreases  Win-lose orientation rather than problem-solving  Increased hostility toward rival group **Approaches to Managing Conflict  There are five styles for dealing with conflict.  None of the five styles is inherently superior.  Each style might have its place given the situation in which the conflict episode occurs  Avoiding  Characterized by low assertiveness of one’s own interests and low cooperation with the other party  Accommodating  One cooperates with the other party while not asserting one’s own interests  Competing  Maximizes assertiveness and minimized cooperation  Compromise  Combines intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation  Collaborating  Maximizes both assertiveness and cooperation How to Manage Conflict 1. Too much and too little is bad, some is ok – x-axis = conflict/stress; y-axis = performance/productivity – getting bored with no work to do: role underload – too high a level of conflict/stress: role overload – optimum level of stress: feel prepared to work – For managers: find optimum levels of stress for productivity – Remember not to project onto others 2. Emphasize common goals – Getting people on the same page 3. Reduce differentiation – Alignment between humans in group (reduce differences between people) 4. Improve communication and understanding – Boosting EI & CI 5. Clarify rules and procedures – reducing rule ambiguity and conflict **Managing Conflict with Negotiation  Negotiation  Decision-making process among interdependent parties who do not share identical preferences  Attempt to prevent or resolve conflict and come up with a satisfactory resolution for both parties  Zone of agreement  Common negotiations: 1. salary negotiations between employee and employer 2. benefits 3. union negotiations (collective bargaining)  Distributive negotiation tactics  Win-lose negotiation (fixed amounts of assets are divided between parties) – satisficing  Single-issue negotiation  Tactics include (threats and promises, firmness and concessions, persuasion)  Integrative negotiation tactics  Win-win negotiation tactics (mutual problem solving can enlarge the assets to divided between parties) o Mutual problem solving (↑ assets between parties)  Tactics include (Cutting costs, superordinate goals  attractive outcomes that can only be achieved by collab, info exchange, differences as opportunities)  Third party involvement (intermediate)  Intervene between negotiating parties o Getting someone else to come in and help resolve issues  Concilitation (gov’t employee; no board report  no decisions made, can strike)  Mediation (help facilitate negotiated agreement; 2 parties pay mediator to come to decision)  Arbitration (authority to dictate terms of settlement; don’t have right to strike  essential services) **The Stress Process (Intrapersonal Conflict)  Moderators 1. Individual differences Ex. personality, ability, thinking styles 2. Organizational factors Ex. social support, policies, comm. 3. Extra-organizational factors Ex. family &/or outside support  Moderators lead to anywhere between stress factors in process  Stressors  Environmental events that have the potential to induce stress  Factors that create demands on the individual Ex. workload, lack of control, work/non-work life balance expectations  Primary Prevention, external (happen to you)/internal stressor (own thoughts/perfectionism)  Stress  Psychological reaction to the demands inherent in a stressor that has the potential to make a person feel tense/anxious  Experience and perception of demands from the environment Ex. evaluation to threats to self, coping capability, available resources  Secondary prevention, external/internal stress
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