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week 9 - chapter 12 .docx

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Teal Mc Ateer

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Chapter 12 - Power What is Power?  The capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence  Resource dependency  suppliers and customers power relationship; need for customers to buy your product; suppliers can have power over you  Meso (in this class): power between two people; or leader between leader and group of people  Professor/ student or employer/employee o Dependence on prof, prof can influence student because they are dependent on prof for a grade  Power is social exchange (based on social exchange theory)  Part 1: according to exchange theory, resource dependency occurs when an individual needs something that another person has (we say the person with the need is dependent on the other) o No power will occur is that is not true  Part 2: Power or influence occurs when the person with the need for the resource gets it, in exchange for change in thoughts &/or your behaviors o But have changed something permanently o To get what they need, compromises their thoughts/behaviours  What is the difference between positive power and negative power?  Positive: two way relationship  shes teaching us, wanted to learn  Negative: one way relation  don’t want to learn  What explains why power doesn’t always work?  Negative power at a job  leaving job for another job  Alternative sourcing  Nest egg/ stock filing  saving up enough to leave after ** Five Bases (Types) of Individual Power  Structural: power the organization gives to an individual (first 3)  Personal: comes from characteristic something to do with the individual 1) Legitimate Power  Power derived from a person’s position or job in an organization (eg. President of your company asks you to do something)  Have authority to exercise control over other peoples behavior  Giving you the right to give orders (to tell people what to do)  Has the effectiveness of everybody else’s acceptance that you have the right to do these this 2) Reward Power  Power derived from the ability to provide positive outcomes and prevent negative outcomes (eg. you accept overtime because you want your boss to promote you)  Giving and taking  Highly based on reinforcement theory (positive, negative, extinction)  Accept overtime because you want promotion  Individuals power possess the resources to give or take away rewards recognition 3) Coercive Power  Power derived from the use of punishment and threat  Controlling people through fear (eg. you arrive to work 15 minutes early because you know your boss will flip out if you’re late)  Controlling people based on fear  Centre core of harassment, individuals ability to coheres 4) Referent Power  Power derived from being well liked by others (eg. people will do a favour for you because you’re such a nice person)  Occurs when others willingly follow the direction of another for no reason other than personal attraction  Be like you, admire you,  Base of charismatic leadership o A personal style that captures the attention, hearts and imagination of people 5) Expert Power  Power derived from having special information or expertise that is valued by an organization (eg. you got your undergrad from Mac and because you’re smart, everyone at work comes to you with questions).  Occurs because the person hold some ability; highly experienced/trained  Able to sway the opinions and behaviors of less experienced people  2 component: o Information  Know what you’re talking about (knowledge/true capability) o Status  Letters behind your name  Credentials  want to be at commitment (Pavlov, skinner)  referent works for the long haul  reward and coerceive don’t work in the long haul  connect with the influence tactics How do people obtain power? (Kanter 1977; Pfeffer, 1992) • under the water ling • Doing the right things – Extraordinary Activities (non-routine positions) o Attach yourself to projects that are unusual/unique activities that will open up opportunities for you – Visible Activities o Let people know subtly o Extraordinary activities will not generate power if no one knows about them – Relevant Activities o Only if its relevant o Will not ass influence if no one sees work as relevant to solution of an organization problem  Cultivating the right people – Develop informal relationships with the right people (outsiders, subordinates, peers, superiors) o Cultivate up/down/across – Outsiders o Establishing good relations with key people outside one’s organization o Power by association  Subordinates o Identifying with certain up-and-coming subordinates  Peers  Superiors o Mentors/sponsors Empowerment  Giving people the authority, opportunity, and motivation to take initiative and solve organizational problems  Having authority to solve an organizational problem  legitimate power  Giving people the freedom and ability to make decisions and commitments  Puts power where it is needed to make it effective  empowered people have a strong sense of self-efficacy  levels:  too little: cannot perform job effectively  just enough to carry out job: effective performance  excessive power: abuse and ineffective performance Degrees of Empowerment  No discretion  Routine, repetition, tasks assigned, operate according to rules rather than initiative  Participatory empowerment  Autonomous work groups, given some authority  Self-management  Full decision-making power, management faith in employees carrying out organizational missions and goals Characteristics of Empowered People  Self-determination  free to choose how to work; not micro-managed  Sense of meaning  their work is important to them; they care about what they are doing  Sense of competence  confident about their ability to do their work well; know they can perform  Sense of impact  believe they can have influence on their work unit; others listen to their ideas Influence Tactics  tactics that are used to convert power into actual influence over others (Yukl & Falbe, 1990)  specific behaviours that powerholders use to affect others  tactcs:  Assertiveness  ordering, nagging, setting deadlines  Ingratiation  using flattery and acting friendly  Exchange  doing favours or offering to trade favours  Upward Appeals  making formal or informal appeals to superiors for intervention (also inspirational appeals and personal appeals)  Coalition Formation  seeking united support from other organizational members  Rational Persuasion  using facts and data to make a logical or rational presentation of
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