Communication-The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver.
Interpersonal communication-the exchange of information between people
Thinking: Purchasing manager says to herself”i think we’re getting short onA-40”
The sender needs to encode his/her thought into some form(in writing/speech/memo) that
can be transmitted(via mail/voice mail/face to face) to the receiver.--> the receiver needs
to perceive(reads the memo/ the message) and decoding(find out whatA-40 is)
to achieve accurate understanding(realize he must place an order)
Effective communication-communication whereby the right information in a Timely
Chain of command-lines of authority and formal report relationships.[who should report
Downward communication-information that flows from the top of the organization
toward the bottom.
Upward communication-Information that flows from the bottom of the organization
toward the top.
Horizontal Communication-information that flows between departments or functional
units, usually as a means of coordinating effort[When two people from two different departmen
ts in an organization have to communicate with each ]ther ------Directives and instructions usually pass downward through the chain of command,
and ideas and suggestions pass upward.
Deficiencies in the Chain of Command
Informal Communication-fails to consider informal information between members. it
might spread unsavory, inaccurate rumors across the organization
Filtering- the tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission
-employees are supposed to filter info. Upward filtering: Because employee are
afraid that their boss will use the information against them; Downward filtering is often
due to time pressures/ simple lack of attention to detail.
Open door policy-the opportunity for employees to communicate directly with a
manager without going through the chain of command
-decrease the upward filtering of sensitive information.
Slowness- can be even slower for horizontal communication between apartments
How good is manager-employee communication?
1) How employees should and do allocate time
2) How long it takes to learn a job
3) The importance employees attach to pay
4) The amount of authority the employee has
5) The employee’s skills and abilities
6) The employee’s performance and obstacles to good performance
7) The manager’s leadership style
Perceptual Differences suggest a lack of openness in communication which might contribute to role
conflict and ambiguity. Lack of openness in communication reduces employee job satisfaction.
Barriers to effective Manager--Employee communication
A) Conflicting Role Demands--Many managers have difficulties balancing task and social emotional
role demands----------2 separate messages that focus no task and social-emotional issues will be more
effective than one message that combines both
B) The mum effect-- the tendency to avoid communicating unfavorable news to others. It is most
likely when the sender is responsible for the bad news.-> applies to both employees and managers.
an org.’s informal communication network; cuts across formal lines of communication.; doesn’t
just communicate info through word of mouth.
Org. Often have several grapevine.
transmit info that is relevant to the performance of the org. As well as personal gossip
Personal information and emotionally charged information are most likely to be distorted
only a proportion of those who receive grapevine news pass it on
(eg. “x days without a major accident”->if a “zero” is appeared, it means someone just had an
accident, workers who sees the sign will be asking who is that “someone”->they will know the
information within 5 mins even they don’t know “someone” why do they know it so fast? It traveled
through the “GRAPEVINE”)
Who participates in the Grapevine?
Personality Characteristics play a role in grapevine participation
The nature of information also influences who chooses to pass it on
The physical location of org. Members is also related to the opportunity to both receive and
transmit information via the grapevine
1) It can keep employees informed about important org. Matters 2) Provide a test of employee reaction to proposed changes without making formal commitments
3) Serve as a potent informal recruiting source
1) can become a problem when it becomes a constant pipeline for rumors[is an unverified belief that is
in general circulation]
2) People cannot verify the information as a as accurate, rumors are susceptible to severe distortion as
they are passed from person to person
Rumors spread faster and farthest when:
A)the info is especially ambiguous;
B)the content is important to those involved
C)seems credible and the recipient is anxious(fearful)
The Verbal Language of work
Jargon- Specialized language used by job holders or members of particular organization
-can be efficient means of communicating with peers and provide a touch of status to those who have
-it can be a barrier to clear communication between departments and those outside of the org./
-can be intimidating and confusing to new org. Members
COMVOC(common vocabulary) provide a common basis for interaction among virtual strangers.
The non-verbal language of work
-refers to the transmission of messages bu some medium other than speech or writing
1) body language-senders’bodily motions; facial expressions or physical location
Two important msg sent via body:
A) the extent to which the sender likes and is interested in the receiver.
B) The sender’s views concerning the relative status of the sender and the receiver.
Senders comunicatate liking and interest in the receiver when they:
A) position themselves physically close to the receiver
B) touch the receiver during the interaction
C) maintain eye contact with the receiver
D) lean forward during the interaction
E) Direct the torso toward the receiver
Senders feel themselves to be of higher status than the receiver act more relaxed than those who
perceiver themselves to be of lower status. Relaxation is demonstrated by:
A) the casual, asymmetrical placement of arms and legs
B) A reclining, non-erect seating position;
C) A lack of fridgeting and nervous activity
2) props; artifacts and costumes.
-Office decor and arrangement
A) Personal decorations, neatness and a desk placed against a wall made students feel more
welcome and comfortable in a professor’s office
B) Middle managers have been found to use office decor to “profile” the identity and status of
A) the clothing org members wear sends signals about their competence, seriousness and
B) Research indicates that clothing does communicate
C) Partly because the impact it has on the wearer’s own self-image. Gender Differences in communication
Gender differences in communication styles influence the way that men and women are perceived and
treated in the workplace.
-have thir origin in childhood; revolve around the “one up, one down” position.
-men are most concerned about power dynamics and use communication as way to position
themselves in a one-up situation
-women are more concerned with rapport building, and the communicate in ways that avoid putting
-as a result, women often find themselves in a one-down position, which can have a negative effect on
the rewards they receive and their careers
-there are a number of key differences in male and female communication styles and rituals that often
place women in a one-down position
Getting Credit -- Men are more likely than women to blow their horn about something food they have
Confidence and boasting-- men tend to be more boastful about themselves and their capabilities and to
minimize their doubts
Asking questions-- Men are less likely to ask question
Apologies-- Men avoid ritual apologies because it is a sign of weakness
Feedback-- Men are more blunt and straightforward
Compliments- Women are more likely to provide compliments
Ritual Opposition--Men often use ritual opposition as a form of communication and to exchange
Managing up and down- men spend much more time communicating with their superiors and talking
about their achievement
Indirectness-- women tend to be indirect when giving orders
The differences in communication styles between men and women almost always reflect negatively on
women and place them in a one-down position.
Need to recognize that people have different linguistic styles and to be flexible and adjust your style to
any given situation.
Many of the failures in business and management stem from problems in cross-cultural
Important dimensions of cross-cultural communication include:
-Etiquette and politeness
-Communication is generally between individuals or groups who share similar cultural values.
-speaking the same language is no guarantee of perfect communication
- Learning a second language should facilitate cross- cultural communication
Non- verbal Communication across cultures
-There are many differences in non-verbal communication across cultures
Facial expressions- people are good at decoding basic, simple emotions in facial expressions even
across cultures. However, some cultures frown on the display of negative expressions.
Gestures- Gestures do not translate well a