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OB Chapter 10.doc

9 Pages
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Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMMERCE 1BA3
Professor
Carolyn Capretta

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Description
Chapter 10-Communication Communication-The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver. Interpersonal communication-the exchange of information between people Thinking: Purchasing manager says to herself”i think we’re getting short onA-40” The sender needs to encode his/her thought into some form(in writing/speech/memo) that can be transmitted(via mail/voice mail/face to face) to the receiver.--> the receiver needs to perceive(reads the memo/ the message) and decoding(find out whatA-40 is) to achieve accurate understanding(realize he must place an order) Effective communication-communication whereby the right information in a Timely manner. Chain of command-lines of authority and formal report relationships.[who should report to who] Downward communication-information that flows from the top of the organization toward the bottom. Upward communication-Information that flows from the bottom of the organization toward the top. Horizontal Communication-information that flows between departments or functional units, usually as a means of coordinating effort[When two people from two different departmen ts in an organization have to communicate with each ]ther ------Directives and instructions usually pass downward through the chain of command, and ideas and suggestions pass upward. Deficiencies in the Chain of Command Informal Communication-fails to consider informal information between members. it might spread unsavory, inaccurate rumors across the organization Filtering- the tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission -employees are supposed to filter info. Upward filtering: Because employee are afraid that their boss will use the information against them; Downward filtering is often due to time pressures/ simple lack of attention to detail. Open door policy-the opportunity for employees to communicate directly with a manager without going through the chain of command -decrease the upward filtering of sensitive information. Slowness- can be even slower for horizontal communication between apartments How good is manager-employee communication? 1) How employees should and do allocate time 2) How long it takes to learn a job 3) The importance employees attach to pay 4) The amount of authority the employee has 5) The employee’s skills and abilities 6) The employee’s performance and obstacles to good performance 7) The manager’s leadership style Perceptual Differences suggest a lack of openness in communication which might contribute to role conflict and ambiguity. Lack of openness in communication reduces employee job satisfaction. Barriers to effective Manager--Employee communication A) Conflicting Role Demands--Many managers have difficulties balancing task and social emotional role demands----------2 separate messages that focus no task and social-emotional issues will be more effective than one message that combines both B) The mum effect-- the tendency to avoid communicating unfavorable news to others. It is most likely when the sender is responsible for the bad news.-> applies to both employees and managers. THE Grapevine  an org.’s informal communication network; cuts across formal lines of communication.; doesn’t just communicate info through word of mouth.  Org. Often have several grapevine.  transmit info that is relevant to the performance of the org. As well as personal gossip  Personal information and emotionally charged information are most likely to be distorted  only a proportion of those who receive grapevine news pass it on (eg. “x days without a major accident”->if a “zero” is appeared, it means someone just had an accident, workers who sees the sign will be asking who is that “someone”->they will know the information within 5 mins even they don’t know “someone” why do they know it so fast? It traveled through the “GRAPEVINE”) Who participates in the Grapevine?  Personality Characteristics play a role in grapevine participation  The nature of information also influences who chooses to pass it on  The physical location of org. Members is also related to the opportunity to both receive and transmit information via the grapevine PRO 1) It can keep employees informed about important org. Matters 2) Provide a test of employee reaction to proposed changes without making formal commitments 3) Serve as a potent informal recruiting source CON 1) can become a problem when it becomes a constant pipeline for rumors[is an unverified belief that is in general circulation] 2) People cannot verify the information as a as accurate, rumors are susceptible to severe distortion as they are passed from person to person Rumors spread faster and farthest when: A)the info is especially ambiguous; B)the content is important to those involved C)seems credible and the recipient is anxious(fearful) The Verbal Language of work Jargon- Specialized language used by job holders or members of particular organization -can be efficient means of communicating with peers and provide a touch of status to those who have mastered it -it can be a barrier to clear communication between departments and those outside of the org./ profession -can be intimidating and confusing to new org. Members COMVOC(common vocabulary) provide a common basis for interaction among virtual strangers. The non-verbal language of work -refers to the transmission of messages bu some medium other than speech or writing MAJOR FORM--- 1) body language-senders’bodily motions; facial expressions or physical location Two important msg sent via body: A) the extent to which the sender likes and is interested in the receiver. B) The sender’s views concerning the relative status of the sender and the receiver. Senders comunicatate liking and interest in the receiver when they: A) position themselves physically close to the receiver B) touch the receiver during the interaction C) maintain eye contact with the receiver D) lean forward during the interaction E) Direct the torso toward the receiver Senders feel themselves to be of higher status than the receiver act more relaxed than those who perceiver themselves to be of lower status. Relaxation is demonstrated by: A) the casual, asymmetrical placement of arms and legs B) A reclining, non-erect seating position; C) A lack of fridgeting and nervous activity 2) props; artifacts and costumes. -Office decor and arrangement A) Personal decorations, neatness and a desk placed against a wall made students feel more welcome and comfortable in a professor’s office B) Middle managers have been found to use office decor to “profile” the identity and status of office occupants -Clothing A) the clothing org members wear sends signals about their competence, seriousness and promotability. B) Research indicates that clothing does communicate C) Partly because the impact it has on the wearer’s own self-image. Gender Differences in communication Gender differences in communication styles influence the way that men and women are perceived and treated in the workplace. -have thir origin in childhood; revolve around the “one up, one down” position. -men are most concerned about power dynamics and use communication as way to position themselves in a one-up situation -women are more concerned with rapport building, and the communicate in ways that avoid putting others down -as a result, women often find themselves in a one-down position, which can have a negative effect on the rewards they receive and their careers -there are a number of key differences in male and female communication styles and rituals that often place women in a one-down position Getting Credit -- Men are more likely than women to blow their horn about something food they have done Confidence and boasting-- men tend to be more boastful about themselves and their capabilities and to minimize their doubts Asking questions-- Men are less likely to ask question Apologies-- Men avoid ritual apologies because it is a sign of weakness Feedback-- Men are more blunt and straightforward Compliments- Women are more likely to provide compliments Ritual Opposition--Men often use ritual opposition as a form of communication and to exchange ideas. Managing up and down- men spend much more time communicating with their superiors and talking about their achievement Indirectness-- women tend to be indirect when giving orders The differences in communication styles between men and women almost always reflect negatively on women and place them in a one-down position. Need to recognize that people have different linguistic styles and to be flexible and adjust your style to any given situation. Cross-Cultural Communication Many of the failures in business and management stem from problems in cross-cultural communication. Important dimensions of cross-cultural communication include: -Language differences -Non-verbal communication -Etiquette and politeness -Social conventions -Cultural context Language Differences -Communication is generally between individuals or groups who share similar cultural values. -speaking the same language is no guarantee of perfect communication - Learning a second language should facilitate cross- cultural communication Non- verbal Communication across cultures -There are many differences in non-verbal communication across cultures Facial expressions- people are good at decoding basic, simple emotions in facial expressions even across cultures. However, some cultures frown on the display of negative expressions. Gestures- Gestures do not translate well a
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