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week 8 - chapter 9 .docx

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Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMMERCE 1BA3
Professor
Teal Mc Ateer

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Leadership What is Leadership? • The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational  context. − Managing people to get the day­to­day tasks done − To inspire people to do the extraordinary •  Strategic leadership:  leadership that involves the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility,  think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the  organization Formal vs. Informal •  Forma  – Legitimacy – Role/position (title) – Organization gives them the power (authority) •  Informa  – No legitimate title – Positive power always (positive power = manager  employee – Critical knowledge and experience Leaders vs. Managers • The role of the leader and the role of the manager are not the same. • Is it possible to be a manager yet not have influence? − Yes −  Traditional managers : do perspective acts (plan, delegate, organize, compensate −  Leaders : go beyond the traditional tasks **Transformational vs. Transactional •  Transformationa  – Leadership that provides followers with a new vision that instills true commitment  – Arouse intense feelings – Inspirational – Rely on personal sources of power – Charisma – Able to develop common vision – Constantly creating opportunity – Love to give autonomy (trusting) •  Transactiona  – Leadership based on a straightforward exchange relationship between leader and followers  – Motivate by exchanging rewards for services – Manager­like role – No long­term impact Trait – Innate  Behaviour – Can be Trained Universal (1) Transformational Leaders  (2) Socio­emotional & Task Leaders  Situation Contingent (3) Fiedler’s Contingency Model of  (4) Path –Goal theory Leadership Vroom­Yetton’s Model   ▯after (4) teals 2013 • Universal – leaders are leaders because of some enduring aspect of their personality/behaviour (use  it all the time)  ▯situation doesn’t matter • Universal trait – exercise your gifts all the time (1) • Situation contingent theories – leaders adjust the expression of traits/behaviors to fit the demands  of the situation (teals situational sensor) (1) – great man approach ­ charismatic ­ you’re born this way (2) why universal theories emerged ­ emerged because there weren’t enough born leaders ­ research on leaders who were found to be effective and learn their behaviors ­ 2 grouping of behaviors  ▯task people  ▯hard/soft (socio­emotional) (3) natural prepotency  Universal Leader Influence •  Universal Trait Theories or Approaches  − Transformational leaders − belief that certain individuals are destined to be leaders regardless of the situation. − traits: individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability, and  personality. − limitations of the trait approach  ▯Same leader no matter where they go, who they deal with  ▯No matter where you go you will be affected  ▯Born leader no matter who the audience is •  Universal Behaviour Theories/Approaches  − Task Leader (Above the waterline) o A leader who is concerned with accomplishing a task by organizing others, planning  strategy, and dividing labour. − Socio­emotional leader (below the waterline) o a leader who is concerned with reducing tension, patching up disagreements, and  maintaining morale • Same as task leaders/socio­emotional leader from different studies: − The Ohio State Studies o  Initiating Consideration:  the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows  personal concern for employees (socio­emotional) o  Initiating Structure  the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal  attainment (task leader) − Managerial grid theory: concern for people (soft/hard), concern for production (task) − U Michigan study: o Product­oriented (task), people­oriented (soft/hard) − Universal behaviors: task oriented and you never change Situation­Contingent Leader Influence •  Contingency Trait Theories/Approaches  − Fiedler’s Contingency Theory o The association between leadership orientation (more task/oriented) and group  effectiveness is contingent on how favorable the situation is for exerting influence o Only sending people to specific situations based on their strengths (task OR socio­ emotional) o Propensity to hard vs. soft leadership skills  o “We need to coach leaders to pay attention to the situation” 1. Leadership orientation   Least Preferred Co­Worker Scale  ▯  LPC: A current or past co­worker with whom a leader has had a  difficult time accomplishing a task.  High  ▯people oriented  Low  ▯task oriented  Controversial   Determined whether you were more task or people oriented 2. Situational favourableness   leader­member relations   ▯ he extent to which the group trusts/respects leader and will follow  his/her direction   task structu e ▯ degree to which task either clearly specified and defined or  ambiguous   position power   ▯extent to which leader has official power to influence simply because  of where he is in the hierarchy 3. The Contingency Model  how do you figure out which situation is most favourable for your style  favourableness high  i. leader­member relations  ▯good
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