Chapter 14 – Advertising and Digital Communications
Paid, nonpersonal communication through various media about a business firm, not-for-
profit organization, product, or idea by a sponsor identified in a message that is intended
to inform, persuade, or remind members of a particular audience
Nonpersonal promotions develop promotional mixes and marketing communication
Advertising most visible form
used by marketers to reach certain groups of people with messages designed to appeal to
business firms, not-for-profits, or ultimate consumers.
Types of Advertising
nonpersonal selling of a particular good or service, the type people picture when
they think of promotions .
promotes a concept, an idea, a philosophy, or the goodwill of an industry,
company, organization, person, geographical location, or government agency.
broader concept than corporate advertising nonproduct advertising sponsored
by a specific profit-seeking firm
closely linked to public relations
Advertising must create interest in the Brand by:
Reinforcing existing attitudes about an Established Brand
Changing attitudes about an Existing Brand
Creating an overall impression about a new product
Giving the consumer a Reason to Act
Objectives of Advertising
seeks to develop initial demand for a good, service, organization, person, place,
idea, or cause.
It’s a common method used in promoting any new market entry, because at the
introductory stage the goal is simply to announce availability.
designed to increase demand for an existing good, service, organization, person,
place, idea, or cause.
It’s a competitive method suited to the growth stage and early maturity stage of
the product life cycle.
strives to reinforce previous promotional activity by keeping the name of the good,
service, organization, person, place, idea, or cause in the minds of the public.
It’s common in the latter maturity stage and through the decline stage of the
product life cycle. Advertising attempts to condition consumers to adopt favourable views toward a
The goal of an ad is to improve the likelihood that a consumer will buy the good or
To get the best value for their investment, firms must first determine their advertising
Reasons for using ads:
To enhance consumer perceptions of quality in a good or service
To increase customer loyalty
To encourage repeat purchases
To protect themselves during a price war
To show their superiority in order to raise prices without losing market share
Advertising Objectives: brand awareness (levels)
Aided awareness recognition
Unaided awareness recall
Share of mind awareness
Top of mind awareness
effective advertising strategies accomplish at lease one of three tasks:
choosing a strategy is to develop a message that best positions a firm’s product in the
mind of the audience
emphasizes messages with direct or indirect promotional comparisons between
Firms whose products are not the leaders in their markets often favour this
Today regulators actually encourage it, before frowned upon keep the marketplace competitive, keep consumers better informed, and keep
Use of celebrity spokespeople for products
Improved product recognition
Ability to reach consumers of other cultures
A celebrity testimonial generally succeeds when the person is a credible source of
information for the product being promoted
Appropriately matched celebrities improve the product’s believability, recall,
brand recognition, and brand equity
Disadvantages of using celebrities:
A celebrity who endorses too many products may create marketplace confusion.
If a celebrity is involved in a scandal or has legal problems, response to ads is
includes all ads by retail stores that sell products directly to the consuming public.
accounts for a good portion of total ad expenditures, its effectiveness varies widely
Consumers may respond with suspicion or disbelief—source, message, and shopping
experience seem to affect consumer attitudes toward these ads.
cooperative advertising a retailer often shares advertising costs with a manufacturer
or wholesaler, improving dealer relations and strengthening vertical links in the
Involves two-way promotional messages transmitted through communication channels
that induce message recipients to participate actively in the promotional effort
e-commerce and the Internet interactive kiosks = creates a dialogue between markets
gain and hold a shopper’s interest in an environment where shoppers like to be in
provides information to help consumers throughout the purchase and
Interactive advertising adds value by offering the viewer more than just product-related
information or promotion of a brand.
A technique in which marketing partners share the cost of a promotional campaign that
meets their mutual needs
Joint efforts between established brands create greater benefits for both organizations.
Creating an Advertisement
With so many dollars at stake, companies must create effective and memorable ads that
increase sales and enhance a firm’s image.
pinpointing goals that ads need to accomplish.
Common goals include educating the public about a product’s features, enhancing
brand loyalty, or improving consumer perception of the brand.
These objectives should guide the design of the ad. Research can identify what appeals to consumers, and ads can be tested with
potential buyers before committing funds.
marketers have to find a creative way to demonstrate these often intangible images and
convey their benefits
Creative Process Overview
1. Marketing Strategy
2. Copy Strategy
3. Selling Idea(s)
Marketing Strategy - Includes Target Market definition, Positioning and Benefits.
= General Brand Marketing Blueprint.
Copy Strategy - Includes target Market definition and Benefits. Reflects the Positioning of
= an agreed to important document that initiates Creative development by
Selling Ideas-General, consumer friendly ideas of how to translate/visualize the Copy
Form the basis of an individual commercial.
Scripts – Drafts of commercials presented to Client on paper with simple accompanying
If accepted by Client a script will be fine tuned for testing and/or final production.
Translating Advertising Objectives into Advertising Plans
Objecteivs advertising plans
Marketing research helps guide choices in technical areas such as budgeting, copywriting,
scheduling, and media selection.
Posttests measure the effectiveness of an ad and provide feedback on any needed
positioning strategy aims at creating a desired image in the consumer’s mind and
distinguishing the product from those of competitors.
Advertising then communicates the desired position by stressing certain characteristics—
features, price, quality, applications, user needs, or product classes, and competitors’
Advertising campaign — Series of different but related ads that use a single theme and
appear in different media within a specified time period
Tone of the ad
Can be practical, emotional, serious/funny, informative
Several types of appeals can be based on:
o implies that incorrect buying decisions could lead to illness, injury, or other
negative consequences; but can backfire if viewers tune it out as too strong
Humour o creates a positive mood, can improve audience awareness and recall and
enhance brand image; but can distract focus away from the product, lose
effectiveness quickly, or annoy certain consumers or cultural groups
o attracts attention but boosts recall only if the appeal is appropriate to the
product, can put o