Study Guides (248,229)
Canada (121,419)
Dr.Hurst (16)


16 Pages
Unlock Document

Computer Science

ANTHROPOLOGY EXAM Resistance and Revitalization - Resistance: defensive strategy aimed at critiquing dominant forms of power (The elite) o Forms of resistance that seek to restore elements of traditional culture, defensive strategies against invasive elements of Western culture o Common in indigenous communities o Cargo cults:  Leader Yali  Believed there was a supernatural cause for Westerners to produce cargo  Tried to duplicate “white man’s “ ability to produce cargo  Involved imitation of Europeans and building of landing strips and airplanes make of wood, sticks, etc o The Ghost Dance  Prophet Wovoka  Said that if First Nations’ people did the Ghost Dance, then whites would disappear, they would get their freedom back, and their ancestors would return (revival of old traditions) o Hawaiian Renaissance  After WW2, Hawaii was markets as a tourist destination  Hawaiians did not like how they were represented by media as timeless, static, primitive and exotic  Hawaiians started an anti-tourist movement  Revival in interests in aboriginal Hawaiian food, language, culture, and religion - Revitalization movements- forms of resistance to dominant forms of power and authority like colonialism o Hawaiian Renaissance  Rejection of tourism and various aspects of “Western” culture and capitalism  Revival of Polynesian language o Power and Status upheld in societies through:  Economic power: access to resources; control over trade routes  Social/ideological power: control over religion or cultural symbols  Political power: ability to have authority by military and administrative means  Lord of Sican (ruler of Moche site in Peru): • he was a spiritual and economic ruler. Had many labour intensive items in burial such as shawl with 2000 pieces of gold foil sewn onto it • Burial of high status individuals have deep graves with an abundance of offerings • Buried in a seated position • Lots of “exotic” goods • Larger quantities of grave goods • Buried with important spiritual symbols Language and Society - Sapir-Wharf hypothesis: language affects how we think about the world; also known as linguistic determinism - The movement toward “politically correct” speech and “gender neutral” speech - In the 1990’s, for instance: Women became Womyn - The idea is that if we change the way we talk, we can change the way we think, therefore reducing inequalities, racism, etc. - The idea that people’s cultural environment shapes their language and its meaning - In N. American society, women tend to: o Use more descriptors o Be more polite o Use more tag questions o Have a rising intonation at the end of sentences - Ebonic/AAE (black speech) was considered problematic and incorrect English for many years but it just has its own grammar and rules - Prestige refers to the level of respect afforded to some speakers within a culture - In most cultures, “upper—class” accents are generally held in high regard; “lower-class” accents are not - William Labov: Social stratification in NYC o Studied language and between shoppers Saks (upper class_ and S. Klein (lower class) o People’s use of language involved both OVERY and COVERT prestige  Overt prestige: when people intentionally use language or alter their accent to fit in with the socially dominant group  Covert prestige: when people intentionally use language or alter their accent to fit in with an particular group of people  Cultural capital allows to shift their language and behavior to fit diff. social settings  Women exhibited greater ability or willingness to shift language and pronunciation than men Religion, Spirituality, and Ideology - Religion: a form of personal identity, and social/communal affiliation, universal. It is ascribed and can change over time - It is the belief and behavior related to supernatural beings and forces - Edward Tylor: o A way people try to explain their experiences and the physical world o Explains things that cannot be explained such as after death concepts o People try to explain their experiences through other means - Most religions try to explain 6 things: o What supernatural forces or beings exist (gods, witches) o The powers that each has (power to kill, heal) o How humans fit into the supernatural scheme, and what happens after death (sense of peace/comfort, heaven/hell) o How to communicate with the supernatural (songs, dancing, praying) o Types of religious practitioners (priests, shamans) o Private versus public (Individual vs Sunday mass) o Creation/death story, and how humans came on the earth - Science o Repulsive, replace religion o Argue that there is a scientific explanation (decay after death, ghosts don’t exist) o Many anthropologists thought that science would take over religion (even though science and technology is expanding people still practice their own religion) - Magic o People’s attempt to manipulate supernatural forces and beings to act in certain ways o Frazer was the first anthropologists to discuss the distinction between religion and magic o Differs from religion is 3 ways:  Religion is valued for its own sake and not as a means of obtaining other goals  Religion honors supernatural forces whereas magic is more prone to manipulate them for our own selfish purposes  Religions try to be ethical or consider themselves ethical and support public goals whereas magic is selfish and used to promote individual interests (charity)  Magic works in 2 ways: • Law of similarity/imitative magic o Voodoo- try to brings about results through imitation; represent someone to hurt or injure and using a similar object to cause pain • Law of contagion/contagious magic o Close contact with particular person, have locks of hair, nail, clothing that are used to manipulate using “magical spells” - Religion developed through: o evolutionary models and social evolutionism o application to Darwin’s idea to the study of human society o progressed from simple to complex o cannot be proved that spiritual figures exist o developed by faith alone o believed that religion began as ANIMISM or ANIMATISM (Edward Tyler)  Animism: religion probably started when people were trying to explain incomprehensible events • Belief in supernatural beings • Started as an attempt to explain dreaming, trances and altered states of consciousness • The individual and his/her “double soul” • Later, the idea came to be extended that a variety of people, animals, and things can be animated and have invested spirits • Popular belief among First Nations - Animatism (James Frazer) • Idea that there exists impersonal forces in the world (the force in star wars) • These impersonal forces can be good or evil and can be invested in people or animals • Ex: MANA - Types of Religious Practitioners: o Individuals who are religious specialists and who people turn to for guidance. They have extensive knowledge o Shamans:  Incorporates animism; oldest religion  Direct relationship with supernatural world, intermediate between this world and other worlds  Generally part-time religious specialists and more common in non- state societies  Healers  Can enter an altered state of consciousness and use MAGIC to contact other humans, animals, souls  It’s an achieved status  Seen as symbol of power  Images: Trois Freres (animals with mixture of human) o Priests:  Full time religious specialists  More common in state societies  Acquired via formal training normally, but can also be hereditary (Pope)  Perform rituals both secular and religious Syncretism - World religions are based upon written sources - Large international segment of followers/adherents via migration, diaspora, colonialism, missionary - When a religion expands to another part of the work, religious syncretism occurs in which religions blend - Ex: Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico o Represents a blending of Catholic and indigenous Aztec o Aztec goddess Tonantzin seen as the “virgin mary” of the Aztec culture - Ex: Nayar Fertility ritual o Perform rituals for infertile women that involves removal of serpent deities o Infused with Hindu elements-camphor flame, incense, serpent deities, offering of flowers - Ex 3: White Appalachian Protestant o Snake handlers o Believe the poisonous snake will not bite is the person holding it is truthful and pure o Risk of being bitten mirrors risks in environment o Sense of stability in uncertain economic climate - Just because a group adopts elements of a “world” religion doesn’t mean that they interpret its symbols and beliefs in the same way - Ex: Ontario Iroquoians o 4 tribes- Huron, Petun, Neutral, Erie o Adopted catholic religious artifacts-copper items such as cross o Copper was associated with health and luck o Melted it down and wore it as amulets or put them in burials as signs of wealth o Some people were interested in the material rather than the meaning of the crosses made of copper - Meanings of religions and religious symbolism are context0dependant - Religion is constantly changing is dynamic Migration - Movement of people from one place to another (POWER DYNAMICS) - Power dynamics: whether or not people are forced to move; the relationship between the people and the choices they make - Moving gives individuals a new sense of identity - 3 features of population movement: o Internal migration  Rural-urban migration; usually for work  Push-pull theory: push/leave a country due to lack of jobs and get pulled by industrial areas due to jobs o International migration  Often involved exploitive measures  Multinational companies
More Less

Related notes for COMPSCI 1BA3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.