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ANTHROPOLOGY 1AB3 EXAM.docx

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Department
Computer Science
Course
COMPSCI 1BA3
Professor
Dr.Hurst
Semester
Fall

Description
ANTHROPOLOGY EXAM Resistance and Revitalization - Resistance: defensive strategy aimed at critiquing dominant forms of power (The elite) o Forms of resistance that seek to restore elements of traditional culture, defensive strategies against invasive elements of Western culture o Common in indigenous communities o Cargo cults:  Leader Yali  Believed there was a supernatural cause for Westerners to produce cargo  Tried to duplicate “white man’s “ ability to produce cargo  Involved imitation of Europeans and building of landing strips and airplanes make of wood, sticks, etc o The Ghost Dance  Prophet Wovoka  Said that if First Nations’ people did the Ghost Dance, then whites would disappear, they would get their freedom back, and their ancestors would return (revival of old traditions) o Hawaiian Renaissance  After WW2, Hawaii was markets as a tourist destination  Hawaiians did not like how they were represented by media as timeless, static, primitive and exotic  Hawaiians started an anti-tourist movement  Revival in interests in aboriginal Hawaiian food, language, culture, and religion - Revitalization movements- forms of resistance to dominant forms of power and authority like colonialism o Hawaiian Renaissance  Rejection of tourism and various aspects of “Western” culture and capitalism  Revival of Polynesian language o Power and Status upheld in societies through:  Economic power: access to resources; control over trade routes  Social/ideological power: control over religion or cultural symbols  Political power: ability to have authority by military and administrative means  Lord of Sican (ruler of Moche site in Peru): • he was a spiritual and economic ruler. Had many labour intensive items in burial such as shawl with 2000 pieces of gold foil sewn onto it • Burial of high status individuals have deep graves with an abundance of offerings • Buried in a seated position • Lots of “exotic” goods • Larger quantities of grave goods • Buried with important spiritual symbols Language and Society - Sapir-Wharf hypothesis: language affects how we think about the world; also known as linguistic determinism - The movement toward “politically correct” speech and “gender neutral” speech - In the 1990’s, for instance: Women became Womyn - The idea is that if we change the way we talk, we can change the way we think, therefore reducing inequalities, racism, etc. - The idea that people’s cultural environment shapes their language and its meaning - In N. American society, women tend to: o Use more descriptors o Be more polite o Use more tag questions o Have a rising intonation at the end of sentences - Ebonic/AAE (black speech) was considered problematic and incorrect English for many years but it just has its own grammar and rules - Prestige refers to the level of respect afforded to some speakers within a culture - In most cultures, “upper—class” accents are generally held in high regard; “lower-class” accents are not - William Labov: Social stratification in NYC o Studied language and between shoppers Saks (upper class_ and S. Klein (lower class) o People’s use of language involved both OVERY and COVERT prestige  Overt prestige: when people intentionally use language or alter their accent to fit in with the socially dominant group  Covert prestige: when people intentionally use language or alter their accent to fit in with an particular group of people  Cultural capital allows to shift their language and behavior to fit diff. social settings  Women exhibited greater ability or willingness to shift language and pronunciation than men Religion, Spirituality, and Ideology - Religion: a form of personal identity, and social/communal affiliation, universal. It is ascribed and can change over time - It is the belief and behavior related to supernatural beings and forces - Edward Tylor: o A way people try to explain their experiences and the physical world o Explains things that cannot be explained such as after death concepts o People try to explain their experiences through other means - Most religions try to explain 6 things: o What supernatural forces or beings exist (gods, witches) o The powers that each has (power to kill, heal) o How humans fit into the supernatural scheme, and what happens after death (sense of peace/comfort, heaven/hell) o How to communicate with the supernatural (songs, dancing, praying) o Types of religious practitioners (priests, shamans) o Private versus public (Individual vs Sunday mass) o Creation/death story, and how humans came on the earth - Science o Repulsive, replace religion o Argue that there is a scientific explanation (decay after death, ghosts don’t exist) o Many anthropologists thought that science would take over religion (even though science and technology is expanding people still practice their own religion) - Magic o People’s attempt to manipulate supernatural forces and beings to act in certain ways o Frazer was the first anthropologists to discuss the distinction between religion and magic o Differs from religion is 3 ways:  Religion is valued for its own sake and not as a means of obtaining other goals  Religion honors supernatural forces whereas magic is more prone to manipulate them for our own selfish purposes  Religions try to be ethical or consider themselves ethical and support public goals whereas magic is selfish and used to promote individual interests (charity)  Magic works in 2 ways: • Law of similarity/imitative magic o Voodoo- try to brings about results through imitation; represent someone to hurt or injure and using a similar object to cause pain • Law of contagion/contagious magic o Close contact with particular person, have locks of hair, nail, clothing that are used to manipulate using “magical spells” - Religion developed through: o evolutionary models and social evolutionism o application to Darwin’s idea to the study of human society o progressed from simple to complex o cannot be proved that spiritual figures exist o developed by faith alone o believed that religion began as ANIMISM or ANIMATISM (Edward Tyler)  Animism: religion probably started when people were trying to explain incomprehensible events • Belief in supernatural beings • Started as an attempt to explain dreaming, trances and altered states of consciousness • The individual and his/her “double soul” • Later, the idea came to be extended that a variety of people, animals, and things can be animated and have invested spirits • Popular belief among First Nations - Animatism (James Frazer) • Idea that there exists impersonal forces in the world (the force in star wars) • These impersonal forces can be good or evil and can be invested in people or animals • Ex: MANA - Types of Religious Practitioners: o Individuals who are religious specialists and who people turn to for guidance. They have extensive knowledge o Shamans:  Incorporates animism; oldest religion  Direct relationship with supernatural world, intermediate between this world and other worlds  Generally part-time religious specialists and more common in non- state societies  Healers  Can enter an altered state of consciousness and use MAGIC to contact other humans, animals, souls  It’s an achieved status  Seen as symbol of power  Images: Trois Freres (animals with mixture of human) o Priests:  Full time religious specialists  More common in state societies  Acquired via formal training normally, but can also be hereditary (Pope)  Perform rituals both secular and religious Syncretism - World religions are based upon written sources - Large international segment of followers/adherents via migration, diaspora, colonialism, missionary - When a religion expands to another part of the work, religious syncretism occurs in which religions blend - Ex: Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico o Represents a blending of Catholic and indigenous Aztec o Aztec goddess Tonantzin seen as the “virgin mary” of the Aztec culture - Ex: Nayar Fertility ritual o Perform rituals for infertile women that involves removal of serpent deities o Infused with Hindu elements-camphor flame, incense, serpent deities, offering of flowers - Ex 3: White Appalachian Protestant o Snake handlers o Believe the poisonous snake will not bite is the person holding it is truthful and pure o Risk of being bitten mirrors risks in environment o Sense of stability in uncertain economic climate - Just because a group adopts elements of a “world” religion doesn’t mean that they interpret its symbols and beliefs in the same way - Ex: Ontario Iroquoians o 4 tribes- Huron, Petun, Neutral, Erie o Adopted catholic religious artifacts-copper items such as cross o Copper was associated with health and luck o Melted it down and wore it as amulets or put them in burials as signs of wealth o Some people were interested in the material rather than the meaning of the crosses made of copper - Meanings of religions and religious symbolism are context0dependant - Religion is constantly changing is dynamic Migration - Movement of people from one place to another (POWER DYNAMICS) - Power dynamics: whether or not people are forced to move; the relationship between the people and the choices they make - Moving gives individuals a new sense of identity - 3 features of population movement: o Internal migration  Rural-urban migration; usually for work  Push-pull theory: push/leave a country due to lack of jobs and get pulled by industrial areas due to jobs o International migration  Often involved exploitive measures  Multinational companies
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