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Environmental Science 1G03 Midterm 1 Review.docx

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Earth Sciences
Maureen Padden

Environmental Science 1G03 Midterm 1 Review The Scientific method A systematic approach to problem solving through systematic operation and experimentation A potential solution to a problem is called a hypothesisStep 1 Assumptions or discovery Step 2 Collection of facts that supportchallenge assumptions Step 3 If inconsistency need new hypothesis Step 4 New facts that challengesupport hypothesis Step 5 New hypothesis if necessary Step 6 Keep checking facts against all possible hypothesis Uniformitarianism The present is the key to the past Means that past geological events can be explained by forces occurring todayOrigin of the solar system A huge rotating cloud of dusts and gases nebula begins to contract Most of the material is gravitationally pulled toward the centre making the sun Some dust and gases orbit the central body as a flattened disk The dust and gases orbiting the central body slowly form planetesimals Early Earth No interior layers or atmosphere Constant collisions caused repeated melting and colliding bodies were too small to hold their own atmosphere Was mostly liquid but over time it cooled down Earth is made up of 4 layers Crust Solid 040km thick Continental crust 2040km thick Made of granitic rocks rich in Si Al Na and K elements light weight elementsOceanic Crust 210km thick Made of thick basaltic rocks rich in Fe and MgThe crust floats on the mantle IsostasyMantle Molten 2900km thick Most of earths volume and mass Rich in Fe and Mg Outer Core Molten 2240 km thick Comprised of Fe and SiInner Core Solid 1230km thick Solid metallic core comprised mainly of Ni and FeEarths crust has mainly lighter elements like oxygen and silicon The full earth contains heavier elements like iron and magnesium Earth Systems Geological TimeRelative age The age of an eventobject relative to the age of other objectsevents not given in time units Sammy is older than SallyAbsolute Age the age of an objectevent in years Sammy is 5 years older than SallyHalflife intervals Used for radiometric dating It is the rate of decay of a radioactive element The rate if decay is constant so you can determine the age of a rockfossil by knowing the halflife period and the amount of parent vs daughter element
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