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Midterm

Earth Science - Midterm 1 Questions.docx

14 Pages
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Department
Earth Sciences
Course Code
EARTHSC 2GG3
Professor
Sergei Basik

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Quiz 1 (Chapters 1-8) 1. Which wave of a major tsunami is most likely to be the highest? a) First b) Second c) Third d) None of these 2. Which is a major fault that often shows a progressive migration along its length with time? a) The Alpine Fault in New Zealand b) The Haicheng Fault in China c) The North Anatolian Fault in Turkey d) The New Madrid Fault in Missouri 3. Which types of earthquake waves do the most damage? a) Compressional waves b) Shear waves c) Body waves d) Surface waves 4. The Magnetic stripes of the seafloor are considered evidence of seafloor spreading and ___________. a) Subduction in the rift valleys b) Spreading centers in the trenches c) Changes in the Earth’s axis of rotation d) Periodic reversals in the polarity of Earth’s magnetic field 5. Why does oceanic lithosphere almost always sink beneath the continental lithosphere at the convergent plate boundaries? a) Oceanic lithosphere moves so slowly that it can only sink b) Oceanic lithosphere is at the bottom of the ocean, so it can’t float high enough to ride over a continent c) Oceanic lithosphere is almost twice as dense as the underlying mantle d) Oceanic lithosphere is denser than continental lithosphere 6. Tsunamis are most commonly generated by: a) Volcanoes b) Landslides c) Earthquakes d) Asteroids 7. Rapid (or cataclysmic) disasters include: a) Droughts and earthquakes b) Only geophysical disasters c) Earthquakes and cyclonic storms d) Droughts and desertification 8. The costs of catastrophic events continue to increase primarily because ____________. a) More people are moving into more hazardous areas b) Not enough people pay for insurance in hazardous areas to even out the costs c) Insurance companies are refusing to insure most natural hazard losses d) Natural hazards are becoming more difficult to understand 9. Which of the following is true? a) Earth’s crust is denser than the mantle b) Earth’s curst is thicker than the mantle c) Earth’s crust is less dense than the mantle d) Earth’s crust is part of the asthenosphere and equivalent to it in composition 10.Why do ships in the open ocean NOT notice passage of the tsunami wave? a) The wave goes by so fast that it is gone before anyone notices b) The long time between wave crests dictates that the wave flanks have almost no slope c) Ships are carried on the crest of the wave, so they don’t feel any up or down motion d) Although the wave crests are several hundred meters high, the time between them is several hours, so no one notices 11.Iceland is an example of: a) Continental spreading zone b) Oceanic spreading zone c) Transform boundary d) Collision zone 12.Earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions are defined as: a) The hydro-meteorogical disasters b) The geographical disasters c) The geophysical disasters d) The catastrophes 13.Lithosphere is: a) Inner, hotter, easily deformed part of the Earth b) Upper part of the asthenosphere c) Just the Earth’s crust d) The stiff and rigid outer rind of our plane that includes part of the upper mantle and crust 14.What is a transform boundary characterized by? a) The movement of plates away from each other b) The movement of one plate down against another c) The movement of one plate over another d) Lithospheric plates sliding past each other 15.About how high are the largest earthquake-caused tsunami waves in bays? a) About 3 meters b) About 30 meters c) About 100 meters d) About 300 meters 16.The term “strain” (elastic rebound theory) refers to: a) To the forces imposed on a rock b) The change in shape of the rock in response to the imposed stress c) The change in energy of the earthquake d) The deformation of the tectonic fault 17.Moment magnitude depends on what main factor(s)? a) Total offset distance on the fault during the earthquake b) Frequency of movement of the earthquake waves and the total time of shaking c) Shear strength of the rocks displaced, total surface area of rocks ruptured, and average slip distance on the fault d) Amplitude of seismograph swing at the first movement of arrival of shaking 18.The name of a process by which water-saturated sediment temporarily loses strength and acts as a fluid is: a) Saturation b) Liquefaction c) Liquidation d) Subduction 19.The largest tsunami in recent years occurred in: a) The Pacific ocean b) The Atlantic ocean c) The Arctic ocean d) The Indian ocean 20.Why do they Hawaiian Islands form a chain of volcanoes? a) The mantle below flows is slowly to the east, creating new volcanoes as it goes b) The Hawaiian Islands are not part of a chain c) The crack in the lithosphere is progressively splitting eastward and southward, permitting magma to rise along a line d) The lithosphere carrying Hawaii slowly moves over a hotspot feeding basalt magma overlying a volcano 21.Which of the following have NOT been used to suggest that an earthquake may be coming? a) Micro-earthquakes b) Strange animal behavior c) Changes in groundwater level d) Changes in atmospheric pressure 22.When is a large event such as a major earthquake not a disaster? a) When it happens in a far away country that we do not care about b) When it happens to less than 10,000 people c) When it happens to less than 1,000 people d) When it happens in an area without any people 23.Although the Atlantic coast of North America experiences few large earthquakes, what specific other event could generate a large tsunami wave that could cause a catastrophic damage there? a) A giant subduction-zone earthquake near the coast of Africa b) A giant subduction-zone earthquake along the eastern edge of North America c) A giant transform-fault earthquake on the Atlantic Ocean floor d) Flank collapse of a volcano in the Canary Islands 24.The period of a tsunamis is: a) The average speed of wave b) The time between waves c) The time between earthquakes d) The average height of wave 25.Intensity is a measure of: a) How strongly people feel the shaking and the severity of the damage it causes on the Richter scale b) Energy released during an earthquake as measured on the Mercalli scale c) How strongly people feel the shaking and the severity of the damage it causes on the Mercalli scale d) Energy released during an earthquake as measured on the Richter scale 26.Why are even good swimmers often killed by tsunamis? a) They are carried hundreds of kilometers offshore in the receding wave and cant’ swim that far b) They are held down by the incredible undertow and they drown c) They are impacted by the debris carried in the waves d) They are pushed so deep under the water surface that they get the bends 27.The Himalayas is an example of: a) Spreading zone b) Transform boundary c) Collision zone d) Divergent boundary 28.If the Atlantic Ocean floor is getting wider, why is the Earth not becoming larger? a) It melts at oceanic transform faults b) It is becoming denser so it takes up more space c) Old ocean floor sinks at subduction zones (trenches) d) The Atlantic Ocean floor is not getting wider 29.Mitigation does not include: a) Land-use planning b) Public education c) Insurance d) Scientific forecast of a hazardous event 30.Natural disasters generally involve which of the following? a) Events with a single clear-cut cause b) Events that involve overlapping natural cause c) Events who wholly caused by the activities of man d) Events that are unaffected by the activities of man 31.What is a seismic gap? a) A part of an active fault b) A part of an active fault with a long time between the earthquakes c) A pronounced crevice along a fault d) A gaping crack created by fault movement 32.The epicenter is: a) The point in the crust where a seismic rupture beings b) The point on the earth’s surface vertically above the hypocenter c) The point in the crust where an earthquake finishes d) The point under the earth’s surface where an earthquake begins 33.Which type of earthquake waves shake with the largest amplitude (the larges ground motion)? a) Compressional waves b) Shear waves c) Surface waves d) P-waves 34.The largest historical earthquake by magnitude occurred in: a) China b) Italy c) Chile d) Haiti 35.The faults can be classified: a) According to the way the rocks on one side of the fault move b) According to the age of the rocks c) According to the way the rocks on either side of the fault move in relation to each other d) According to their size Answer Key 1. C 2. C 3. D 4. D 5. D 6. C 7. C 8. A 9. C 10.B 11.B 12.C 13.D 14.D 15.B 16.B 17.C 18.B 19.D 20.D 21.D 22.D 23.D 24.B 25.C 26.C 27.C 28.C 29.D 30.B 31.B 32.B 33.C 34.C 35.C Quiz 2 (Chapters 9-12) 1. The most dangerous area during the pyroclastic flow is: a) The top of the mountain b) The air above the mountain c) The bottom of the valley d) The mountain 2. What kind of material is most likely to fall in a rotational slide? a) Homogeneous, cohesive material b) Rounded sand grains in the slope c) Loose, dry soils d) Elongated boulders with smoothly rounded sides 3. The name of acidic volcanic smog is: a) Pumice b) Lahar c) Carbon dioxide d) Vog 4. What is daylighted surface or layer? a) A weak layer, sloping downward toward a road cut or hillside at a somewhat gentler slope than the hillside b) A part of the bedrock that is exposed at the surface c) A layer that becomes exposed by excavation of a road cut d) None of theses 5. Rhyolite magma
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