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Earth Sciences

Water and the Environment Water and Human Health How did sanitation developin ancient times already concerns with drinking water tastetemperatureappearance Egypt introduction of alum to remove suspended particlesHindus boiling of water Greeks healthy watersun rays remove organics in water for disinfectionstarted to understand that water could carry sediments that can lead to diseaseRoman Empire Roman army made supply to have clean drinking waterimportant for military issues aqueducts came into playmarshes and swamps were drainedCities extensive system to flush wastewater would dispose of the wastewater outside of the cityRenaissance 1400 ADstarted to rediscover writing from roman and Greeks idea of healthy water reemergedModern Times ththIn 17 and 18 centuries the first studies on water treatment had been experimented pollution of drinking water supply was a major problem major cholera outbreaks in London from contaminated drinking water supplypressured authorities to keep water clean first major of systems of aqueducts were due to major outbreaks of cholera typhoid fever etc1860s first water quality testing in New Jersey discovery of pathogens and microbes were beginning to occur18070s1900s introduction of large scale water treatmentlargescale use of sand filters iron sulphate etcalso coincided with the time of pathogen discoveryDr John Snowfirst to establish scientific connection between drinking water water pollution and diseasebased in London Englandinterested with transmission of cholera bacteriaunderstood cholera was a pathogenshowed that water from specific wells could be carriers of choleric agents due to pollutionWhat are the pathogens involvedmicroorganisms viruses bacteria parasites th not know until the 18 century by Louis Pasteurthe total number of coliforms indicate contaminationGiardia lamblia parasite once it finds a way into digestive system it will migrate in epithelial cell and attach itself infecting the hostCryptosporidium parvum diahhrea vomiting fever etc resistant to chlorination can only use ozonationmore expensivecoliforms good indicated of fecesinfected watersoocyst protective shells protecting host o can grow in the host o can be ingested in water from feceswhole family will likely be infected with oocytes recreational waterWhat is choleravibrio cholera produces toxin thth major outbreaks in the 19 in 20 centuryMexicoNorthern South AmericanNorthern Asia RussiaSouthern Asia Thailand Sri LankaCentral Asia ChinaSouthEastern AfricaNorthWestern Africafound pretty much everywhereresponsible for massive diarrheacan die from this up to 36L of excretionWhat is typhoid feversalmonella enteric serovar typhitransmitted by the fecaloral routesustained fever as high as 40C 104C gastroenteritis and diarrheaestimated 1633 million cases of typhoid mostly infects young children under 5 in less developed countries up to teensdeath rates for typhoid fever in rates per 100 thousand populationearly 1900smore than 24about 1909chlorination begunonce chlorination began rates of typhoid fever cases dramatically decreased in US
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