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Midterm 1 Review

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Department
Earth Sciences
Course
EARTHSC 2WW3
Professor
Greg King
Semester
Winter

Description
Midterm 1 ReviewFebruary0912236 PMKey Issues from page 336 million people die each year from waterborne diseases 22 million of the 36 million are in developing countries where 90 are children under the age of 5 yearsA baby dies from waterrelated disease in the developing world every 20 seconds 4500 babies day each day due to water related diseasesHalf the population of developing countries are exposed to polluted water Many are forced to drink polluted water buy expensive water from truckers or else drink no water at all40 of the worlds population have no access to basic sanitation rising to nearly 50 in Asia and 70 in AfricaOver 11 billion people 17 of the world population have no access to safe drinking water including 300 million people in subSaharan AfricaPopulation growth and increasing demand is set to reduce global per capita water resources by more than a third in the coming 50 yearsA third of the world population presently lives in counties suffering moderate to severe water stress and this is likely to rise to two thirds of a much larger populationPoorer countries are the most vulnerable to water stress Many suffer from harsh climates unreliable rainfall poor governance and corruption and rapid population growth plus a lack of expertise technology and finance to overcome problems The growing urban poor the old and the very young are the worst effected In theHimalayas the Tibetan Plateau glaciers and ice capswhose seasonal meltwaters are essential to the welfare of 40of the world population are meltingat an accelerated rateClimate change will cause a major redistribution of global water resources in general regions now short of water will get less and regions that currently have plenty of water will get moreWater wars are in prospect Shared water resources are a source of conflicttwo thirds of rivers in Africa and Asia cross national frontiers So do many aquifersAgriculture is the largest water user in the world consuming 70 of available resources much of it in efficient irrigation Ten countries use more than 40 of their water resources for irrigationCommercialization privatization and globalization of water have been detrimental in a number of developing countries with conflicts between profit motive and service provision and clashed between multinational companies national governments and the people Financial crises are now rapidly transmitted around the world affecting water and sanitation provisionWorld trade is encouraging some countries to use substantial portions of their water resources to produce goods for export This is not always done in the most efficient manner or without detrimental impact on domestic suppliesUnsustainable groundwater mining using more than is being replenished is on the increase By 2000 Libya and Saudi Arabia were already using considerably more water than their annual renewed resourcesRising acts of terrorism now add new fears for water securityCauses of floodingIntensity and duration of precipitationSediment type and availabilityLand use overusing damsEngineering modifications like hurricane Katrina in New Orleans was worsened by the damsSnowmelt and river ice breakupBankfull water level in a river equal to the height of the banksFlooding occurs when water rises above bankfull levelsTo measure the discharge QvA3Where Q amount of discharge units msWhere v velocity of the water ms2Where A area width x depth m Water 2WW3 Page 1
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