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2BA3 Midterm Notes.docx

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McMaster University
Bridget O' Shaughnessy

Chapter 2PersonalityLearningPersonalityRelatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment Consists of traits determined by genetic predisposition and by ones longterm historySusceptible to change through learning experiencesPersonality and Organizational BehaviourSituational Approach Characteristics of the organizational settings ie rewardspunishment influence peoples feelings attitudes and behaviourPersonSituation Debate Disposition vs SituationInteractionist ApproachOrganizational behaviour is a function of both dispositions and the situation oTo predict and understand organizational behaviour one must know something about an individuals personality and the work settingoWeak situation loosely defined roles few rules weak rewardpunishment contingencies personality has most impactoStrong situation personality has less impact Five Factor Model of PersonalityDescriptionExtraversionOutgoing vs ShyAbsenteeismextraverts absent more than introvertsPredictor of job satisfactionNeuroticismDegree to which a person has Predictor of motivationappropriate emotional controlStrongest predictor of job satisfactionLow neuroticismself confident and high selfesteemConscientiousnessDegree to which a person is Predictor of motivationresponsible and achievement Predictor of job oriented satisfactionRetention and absenteeismAgreeableness Extent to which a person is Predictor of job friendly and approachablesatisfaction to a lesser extentOpennessExtent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideascreativity and innovationLocus of Control set of beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forcesHigh external controloBehaviour determined by Fate luck Powerful peopleHigh internal controloBehaviour determined by Selfinitiative personal actions free willoSee stronger link between effort and performance levels they achieve oMore likely to be aware of and take advantage of information that will enable them to perform effectivelyoMore satisfied with their jobs earn more money achieve higher organizational positions perceive less stress careful career planningSelfMonitoring extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationshipsHigh self monitors gravitate toward jobs that require degree of role playing and the exercise of their selfpresentation skillscommunication adaptive skillsoBut more likely to experience more role stress and less commitment to organizationoDifficulty resisting social pressure weak innovationSelfEsteem degree to which a person has a positive selfevaluationBehavioural Plasticity Theory people with low selfesteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences oUnsure of their own viewsbehaviours look to others for information and confirmationEmployees with low selfesteem tend to react badly to negative feedbacklowers subsequent performanceAffectivityEmotional dispositions that predict peoples general emotional tendenciesCan influence emotions and mood states job attitudes and work behaviourRelated to job performancePositive Affectivity propensity to view the world including oneself and others in a positive lightPositive emotions and moodsEnthusiastic sociable energeticNegative AffectivityNegative view of themselves and the world around themDistressed depressed and unhappyProactive Personality Stable personal disposition that reflects tendency to take personal initiative and effect positive change in ones environmentNonproactive people are more likely to be passive and react and adapt to their environmenttend to be shaped by the environment instead of trying to change itRelated to job performance stress tolerance leadership participation team performance entrepreneurshipGeneral SelfEfficacy General trait referring to an individuals belief in his ability to perform successfullyMotivational trait rather than affectiveDeveloped over life span resulting from repeated successes and failuresCore SelfEvaluations broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect evaluations people hold about themselves and their selfworthFour traits include selfesteem general selfefficacy locus of control and neuroticism Positive selfevaluationhigher job satisfaction and job performanceoLikely to find their jobs more intrinsically satisfyingCore selfevaluations are related to job satisfaction over timeLearning relatively permanent change in behaviour potential that occurs due to practice or experienceStems from an environment that gives feedback concerning consequences of behaviouroPractical Skills job specific skills knowledge technical competenceoIntrapersonal Skills problem solving critical thinking risk taking alternative work processesoInterpersonal Skills interactive skillsoCultural Awareness learning social norms of organizationsOperant Learning Theory subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequencesBF Skinner behaviour of rats
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