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Lorraine York

September 11/2012 --> Introduction to Fiction (pg 39-58) -editors say "short story is like a house: -WHY A HOUSE? --> houses have structures (the same layout)like books yet there can be various styles and all are different --> houses can be personalized --> each reader and writer can walk through a house and convey it "differently" -PLOT --> story's sequence of incidents arranged in a dramatic order -GENRE --> type of species of literature (literacy form) -section on pg 43 --> "reading and analyzing short fiction" --> "escaplist literature" and "serious literature" --> ANY literature can be approached seriously September 11/2012 --> John Cheever, "Reunion" (pg 162-165) -Grand Central Station, Manhattan -unified plot -offers exposition -story proceeds to complication =ANTHOLOGY’S INTRODUCTION EXPLAINS ALL THESE CONCEPTS 1) Style -straight-forward style with one exception -few flourishes of vocabulary -foreign phrases and sentence structure -the ratio of abstract to concrete words -phrases from languages other than English(French and Italian languages) -combination of phrases of politeness and rudeness - first person point of view -plain and/or elevated -idea of telling someone to “go to hell”  polite form of GO  WHY? The father is attempting to impress the son, shows that the character has some sort of education and potential, the father speaking formally emphasizes the distance between the man and the son -we can see that the man cannot be polite (no talent for sociability)  man mentions his club aka his sociability (this could be a lie because the man is not social…and he might just want to mention a club to impress his son-however, there’s no evidence that the club doesn’t exist) -very little speech from the son (only 4 lines) isolated 4 speeches of the son ”I have…to get my train…goodbye”  speech charts the son’s emotions: hope, dismay…separation 2)Episodic Repetition -emphasizes the father hasn’t changed at all (4 chances and the father hasn’t used them) -son was excited to see the father, but at the end, it is the son who has to say “I have to go” 3) Re-reading: revisiting rooms of the house st -pg 162 (1 paragraph) reference is saying: it’s his doom  a prophecy he doesn’t want to accept repetition in the story doesn’t only repeat four episodes but also there is repetition of the son’s repeating prophecy September 14/2012 Alice Munro, “Boys and Girls” (pg 218-231) -Initiation Story: “the main character, usually a child or an adolescent, undergoes an experience (or rite of passage) that prepares him/her for adulthood -Setting: place, time: Huron County far past 1945 House/barn bedroom/ Hallway inside/ outside pg 220 (WW2 references) pg 224 (practices of killing horse for meat- “after the war…the farmer’s were…” fictional place but based on this area on-going antagonism of 2 genders (house is the domain of the women, barn is the domain of the man, character trying to break this barrier by imitating her father) -Masculinity + feminity = Culture divide bedroom (Laird and narrator) was shared but as soon as puberty struck, the bedroom was divided space of bedroom might suggest that those systems aren’t in place rules divide boys and girls and the space they shared as kids (adult’s seem to regular a lot of the space: fences, pens, gate…represent imagery of regulation**) “we weren’t afraid of the inside we’re afraid of the outside”…might suggest something more -Labour: rural, seasonal gendered labour is divided according to gender (especially because of time period) labour of narrator can only be defined as she is jokingly referred to as a man (pg. 222) again, it’s evident that adult’s are reinforcing this division of labour - narrator says “my mother doesn’t realize the way things really were” (pg 224) but final twist is on the narrator herself because she is the one who doesn’t realize the way things actually were -Parallel Episodes dramatic structure: 2 horse shooting episodes -why horses? Horses are animals that are not divided by gender, serves as a focal point because hoses don’t need to be divided by gender horses communicate the narrator’s unawareness to gender horses symbolize and associate with freedom -stories of heroism on horses can relate to character -pg 219 (Battle of Baladava-1854) crime and war (1954-1856) Britain upset about Russian interest in Romania (then part of Ottoman Empire) British cavalry made offense against Russian troops (“charge of the light Brigade”) 673 men; less than 200 return- wounded, and over 500 British horses died =Robert Gibb: “The Thin Red Line: painting she was thinking of…main focal point: a horse dying) -Performing Gender: Boys AND girls ”Judith Butler: gender is in no way..a stable identity of locus of agency from which various acts proceed; rather it is an identity tenuously constructed in time- an identity constructed through stylized repetition of acts September 18, 2012 Donalde Barthelme, “The Glass Mountain” (pg. 232-238) 1) The Fragment -directness of a fragment might be appealing to a writer -every point in fragment is important -leaves more to imagination (not everything is explicitly filled in) 2) Metafiction- the self-conscious exploration of the writing of fiction in fiction artist also knows that there are “conventional means of attaining the mountain” 3) pg 236…makes reference’s to Andre Lang’s “The Glass Mountain” …we are sent back to this previous text greatly portrays the “happily ever after theme” shows aspects of competitive world (individual competition, Andrew Lang’s version shows communities reuniting again, the contemporary artist doesn’t think the “happy ending” fits in the contemporary world) shows an alternate ending: throwing a princess off a mountain (showcases the treatment of women, seems very disenchanted with the symbol of women) modern point of view going up to the mountain for the symbol fairytales: naturalized convention (quest, objective) …funny how contemporary artist chooses to do this specific fairy tale 4) The Symbol “any concrete thing or action that implies a meaning beyond its literal sense” suggest a type of communal making (eg/ red rose is a symbol of love) Bathor: “a stylist shifts from the exalted shifts from the exalter to every day which often produces humour” section 100: reinforcing that he is not writing a story where community is fixed through art (putting a lot of self) September 21, 2012 Virgina Woolf, “A Haunted House” (pg. 129-130) -house (symbolism) thoughts to be “safe safe” thought to have a heart beat timeless house house persists even though time changes house wakes up through memories (mortality) -very short -audience is thrown right into the situation -title makes promises by Woolf complicates this…giving a story of love and memories -not sure who the speaker/thinking is -Freud + Woolf (influence on Woolf) ID: basic urges, instincts EGO: conscious will SUPEREGO: social constraints, social conscience, -Impressionism (another influence on Woolf) Claude Monet (could she capture thoughts in the act of being thoughts? -Stream of consciousness: “an attempt to duplicate raw sensory data in the same disorder state that the mind receives it” (pg. 50) 1) Point of view person who enters the house, hears the sounds at first it is 3 person, then it changes to 1 person using words like “we” and “us” st pounces into 1 person POV at the last paragraph 2)Stream of Consciousness non-linear abrupt thoughts paragraph 3: series of impressions relation to everyday lives of both couples 3)Symbol search for meaning is enabled by fragment and stream of consciousness house: togetherness, love, protection house: “body…mortality” (opening of windows at the end) Jamaica Kincaid, “Girl” (pg. 307-308) -socialization into gender roles -sentence structure overwhelms reader author seems to suggest that gender roles will permeate (it will touch all kinds and aspects of lived experience) -strong sense of sexual regulation (sense of cultural anxiety) -stream asks us to re-evaluate things that we receive everyday -girl speaks up at 2 occasions -laughter by recognition of trivial details about how we are supposed to live (simultaneously funny and shows gender regulation) September 25, 2012 Writing: Thesis and Organization The Writing Situation (Aaron and Morrison pg 1-7) a) Assessing the Writing Situation --audience; research deadline purpose research required length of paper document design b) Finding your subject clarify topics make points that occur to you about each topic and then decide: which topic seems easiest to make notes of? c) Consider your audience tone, formality (professional tone= direct and formal) Who is your audience? (eg/ experts in the literary field…someone who already knows the story- this makes things direct and analytical; cut to the analytical chase, no plot summarization) d) Defining your purpose produce a well-argued, evidence based paper eg/ argue, compare, discuss, analyze Thesis and Organization a) Conceiving a Thesis Statement what do you want to argue 1) Functions of a thesis statement -narrows your subject to a single, central idea - claims something specific and significant about your subject, a claim that requires support -conveys your purpose, your reason for writing -concisely previews the arrangement of your ideas 2) Development of a thesis statement September 28, 2012 Oscar Wilde, “The Sphinx Without a Secret: An Etching” (pg. 91-96) -Oscar Wilde: interested with Aestheticism ”art for art’s sake” held that art was not primarily useful for moral, ethical or social purposes simply beautiful in and of itself -Appeared as “Lady Alroy” in 1887: in collection as “A Sphinx Without a Secret” in 1881 1) Generic Expectations -tale “narratives that contain elements that are exotic from the level of ordinary experience” (42) -Frame tale (41): story within a story ironic because there is no mystery we often expect a murder, an affair…but there’s nothing so, then WHAT IS THE POINT? Taking expectations set up by genre and bringing them back to the ground, climax is anti-climatic Lady Allroy’s story is within a larger story of narrator meeting the cord (this framework represents Lord’s life and now he has to uncover layers to get to the mystery) there is nothing there but its epic, therefore the importance that Lady Allroy is suspicious only because she wants quiet 2) Aestheticism and its Limits -truth vs. mystery -Lady Allroy- a work of art that is not explain, she just is a work of art because she’s pretty, her picture is shown a lot of references made to Lady Allroy and art 3) Irrationality of the Rational -Irony: rationality lead to irrationality -hates mystery by falls in love with mystery 4) Living the Resistant Lives: Gay Lives -gestures issue of living secret lives -author himself lived a secret life as a gay man -pg. 91 (Lord has a reputation for being seeker of truth) “I cannot love where I cannot trust” (compares science …crystals in a museum comparison) -Larger Meaning: “taking arts for art’s sake” (take her how she is, don’t subject her to moral inquiry) -expecting Lady Allroy to operate according to his law (as a woman she should real with his moral and time).. Presenting her with evidence by giving her handkerchief (pg 95- “what right do you have to question me”, “the right of a man who loves you”…nothing happened between them by he’s assuming a legal husband role) use of what he carried: her picture..this represents symbolically his attempt to capture her ***MISSING: MR. WILDE’S SECOND CHANCE October 2, 2012 Timothy Findley, “Stones” (pg. 195-213) -Timothy wrote about war, homophobia, racism, and all forms of human injustices -second WW - distance between glory of war and war’s traumas - human intolerance to difference -gesture of disobedience to war 1)Narration: child and war 1 person POV Ben a “character nym” “le Benjamin”= the youngest child (represents youth and innocence) the other siblings had guessed what happened to their father? -WHY THE USE OF A YOUNG NARRATOR? can’t be sure what the child will pick up so as an author you have to restrict yourself children are blunt and honest, with an adult narrator you would have to “hide stuff” (the young doesn’t “pretty- fy” anything) the young child had no concept of war (totally innocent of war)…shows the socialization of organized war retrospective first person (back and forth of the older and younger speaker) socialization into organized forms of violence (pg 203, paragraph 1) to get the innocent and learned experience of violence Ben is naïve really important to have a narrator who struggles to put things together so that information is gradually released -Ben is his mother’s last baby therefore they are close (Ben seeks out his mother’s perspective on what has happened) -Story of war- story of Dieppe 2) War of Symbolism -stones -multi layered concept -colour imagery - “I would have loved to stone” 3) Class -framing devices for story -people fighting wars in terms of class (who fight’s wars?) -Rosedale (Toronto) pre war memory frame-tale (stories within stories) -money is something you had as opposed to to something you went out and got -Reda’s friend (social situation…of class) “polite, oblique and cruel” (indirect) HOW WOULD YOU RELAE THE STORY’S CONCERN WITH CLASS? -everyday lived experiences of class can replicate war conditions (class and war draw boundaries) October 5, 2012 Thomas King, “A Coyote Columbus Story” (pg. 293-297) The Lone Ranger -the lone ranger who was injured, Tonto comes in, saves him… -so the lone ranger and Tonto go around to save the world -Tonto was naïve showed in a stereotypically naïve manner (thick accent..etc) -Thomas King puts lone ranger’s mask on native people of today symbol of “hey I know what you did with this mask but I’m going to reverse it” taking something old and oppressive and gives it a new meaning Thomas King does the same thing with Coyote Columbus -power of telling and retelling stories -recognizing alternate ways of knowing, learning, evaluating, and telling the truth -Why do we tell stories? keeps history alive moral purpose: a point, something to learn stories are windows into our individual perspectives -Why do we retell stories? -keep it alive, extend audience taking credit (cultural admiration gets transferred to you) re-interpretation of ideas to get YOUR message across (little piece of US that always comes along with the story) Alternative Story -Adam and Eve Stories my version vs. your version creation stories don’t reflection one another developed independently story validates your way of looking at the world Re-written Story -understanding original in order to know the rewritten -original story has power, authority… Inhabit the Story -relationship where one story inhabits another -inhabit: “to live inside something” by living inside it, we change it, it becomes our style (reference to houses) -Thomas has inhabited Christopher Columbus’s story (brought his furniture, values, and morals to the story) -make your mark and make it your possession - like the mask, as a symbol of oppression that can be worn/inhabited/ lived in, in order to shift the perspective and power Frame and Interior -What clues are we given to signal that this is not the world we live in? “You know Coyote came by my place the other day. She was going to a party. She had a party hard and she had a party whistle and she had a party rattle. I’m going to a party, she says. Yes, I say, I can see that.” -Where does knowledge come from? Coyote read the history book for knowledge narrator thinks knowledge comes from other people (oral stories) can’t trust written culture (ironic: stories are based off of oral stories and we are reading a written story)…Thomas uses tools of written and oral culture Interior story -old coyote makes up all the rules -power of re-telling stories: let go of our perspective and see things through new eyes -stories need to change because if don’t, you end up with…. October 9,2012 Madelein Thiene, “Simple Recipes” (pg 356-365) -“We could face the worst if we simply renounced our yearning for certainty… But who among us is capable of that renunciation?” How well can you actually know a person? Our need for the assurance of knowing a person inside out, to know everything, to know the truth First person point of view, no specification of gender of narrator though it is sometimes recognized as a female based on the fact that there are similarities between the author and that character/ reading it is like looking through a broken mirror. Although it may contain a high amount of truth it s still fiction. Topics for the lecture 1. Simple Diction 2. Spaces 3. Food symbolism 4. Diaspora: the dispersal of people or cultures 1. Diction (very simple and direct) -1 2 sentences are good examples of repetition with the idea of simple -pg. 356 “Simple way of making rice…” -“The instructions are simple” so is the diction evidentially -makes evident the child simplicity - Foreshadows her brothers inabilities to repeat the simple-ness of the things in their life. The idea that things may be anything but simple, though she repeats it so many times. -Reflects what will become the question of the love, as being anything but simple -The wording of the story is very simple; there is a lot of repetition of the word ‘simple’ 2. Spaces -Dramatizes spaces -Father is repeatedly being described as being in the kitchen (in the middle) -Always explaining the father inhabits the centrality within his own kitchen, and within the young girl (narrator’s) life -Father is usually described as being in the "middle of a room", in the kitchen mainly (inhabiting her father’s space in comparison to Boys and Girls when the girl is inhabiting her father’s space – with pleasure) She dramatizes spaces much like Alice Munro does- manipulating spaces – the father always being in the middle of the room, usually the kitchen, but always in the middle of the room- again, simple diction, but manipulating the space and the fact that the take on the central space, and central space in the world view of his daughters mind and life. The centrality becomes shaken though as the story continues though, my father stands in the middle of the kitchen but this time he is unsure, and longer the central character that he once was. Then he is no longer central, but marginal, he stood in the doorway not in the middle of the room He remembers where is and this comes back to the idea of a patriot being very unsure of his place in the world because of his loss of place, by his immigration, the loosing of the culture within the family. -Father is marginal to the younger generation (The Reunion) 3. Food Symbolism: Fish, rice -pg. 359, death of fish described -pg. 365, the narrator goes back in retrospective to the memory of the fish -Fish comes back again and again as a powerful symbol that it brought up as layers of the story go on -Dying fish symbolizes the dying out relationship with her father; the love for the father is just dying, family breaking apart (symbolism of the fish relating to the girl) Fish symbolizes the love she has for her father (slowly dying) -The fish in the plastic bag, symbolizes the father feeling lost in his new culture (because he is in an immigrant); similar to the fish because the fish is in alien to the plastic bag, not its natural habitat Fish (always being contained In the bag or the sink) symbolizes the father being out of place in the country he lives (challenges of immigration) Beating your child for example would be normal in places like Malaysia but not in Canada -Fish- as a symbol- centrality. A fish swimming back and forth…ourselves, we keeping going back and checking on the fish throughout the story, the being, the death, and the memory of that fish- patterns of imagery – the brother being beaten, scene reflecting the idea of the fish being flaked into a bunch of white pieces, t. breaking the skin to serve it to the family, the way that the brothers skin was being broken. It is repetitive for the fish, what means do you think should be attached to the fish? reflecting of the love her father, as her love began to die, the way the fish just slowly died, the scenes of violence that she witnessed broke them apart, suggests the eventual and painful death of the uncomplicated love for her father -Organism in a alien space, like the father in a culture he does not understand, the idea of “a fish on the water”- the loss of a cultural centrality, you do not know where you are in a cultural view point -Not being able to go to her father, it will be complicated, accepting a portion of guilt, no matter how small that piece- accepting a portion of the piece- it is no longer simple, but complicated, she feels since she ate the fish, she is responsible -Symbolism of rice; seen as something that needs to purified, something that needs to be simple and unadulterated Rice- Something that needs to be simple and purified -The father is very intent on washing out the impurities of the rice Metaphor for coming to terms with her father’s character; he is not exactly a perfect character (just like the rice is not perfect) Rice- Metaphor for coming to terms with her father’s character Father’s need for perfection in the rice reflects the fathers need for the perfection of the family, for the father that means honouring the place of origin Father wants to take out the “contaminating effects” of new culture in the children; he wants them to just focus on the culture/place of origin Rice- Cleaning out the impurities (fathers relationship with son) - Rice, as a symbol- the father is washing the rice to remove imperfections- something that needs to be simply and purified, unadulterated, that this skill does not come easily to her, she just goes through the motions, Metaphor for coming to term with her father’s character- the idea that he is not perfect, nor completely evil, and she finds the challenge deciphering between the two Her inability to accept her father as a simple recipe himself, instead he become frightening Search for the perfect rice is like his search for perfection in his family- the idea that the family should follow something simple to be that perfect family, which means following traditions – sifting out the imperfections that lie within his family, the imperfections that new cultures leave Diaspora: the dispersal of people or cultures Generational difficulty If the son looses the culture language it is because of imperfections, lay, imperfections of character, not because of the merging of two cultures, and the differences within them. This is why the son is always referred to in the sense of being dirty pg. 361; narrator encourages the mother that guilt is like a bruise Brother being beaten in relation to the father serving the fish by "breaking its skin" The brother is perhaps being faced with racism - rejecting the language, cultural food, his father’s authorities Imagine the guilt as a bruise- the idea there are always imperfections of the culture and that the pinpoint goes back to the tiny imperfections of the rice- the idea that imperfections can be gotten rid of so easily- that you can reduce complexities if you just imagine it- but there is no idea that will just make this complication go away- the bruise of guilt, is the bruise of that on her brothers body. 4. Soccer -embracing in a Western game -Chinese played a sport similar to soccer 3000 years ago 5. Tense and Time Shifts -A lot of shifts in terms of time -pg. 357- compare opening paragraphs of 2 & 3 -sudden shifts into the past, then future, etc. 6. Father as Trickster -top of pg. 358 “I know many tricks like this” -many scenarios where the daughter states her father is a trickster -at the end, the father is a strangely, powerless magician October 23, 2012 “Critical Approaches to Literature” (pg. 1251-1255) Psychoanalysis Displacement: for Freud, shifting emotion attached to a particular person to an object associated with him/her; more generally: shifting emotion onto another object. Further development of psychoanalysis… Lacanian Psychoanalysis  Lacanian Psychoanalysis  Jacques Lacan (theorist)  Imaginary Order: when a baby senses things that tell him/her that they are part of the world and not separated from it (baby senses things as a whole, no seperation from the outside world)  Mirror Stage: when babies see his/her own reflection and get the idea they may be a separate self (baby would reflect and see itself separate (as I))  Symbolic Order: the baby gains language which shapes the self into an identity by being slotted into various forms of difference in society (self is shaped into an identity by getting slaughtered into various forms of difference ) Believed the “eye” was an illusion Unified self as an illusion Lady Allroy fails to distinguish herself as an “I” Post structuralism -Deconstruction -Jacques Derrida (theorist): drew from linguistic studies that the words we use to describe a concept are complicated and arbitrary. He took the arbitrariness and applied it broadly to language and communication. -Difference (intended spelling): meaning is always postponed, deferred, the result of an unending chain of signification -If every word does not fit the concept it is describing, then language is based on difference -We learn a constructed difference between “house” and “mouse”, signifiers do not only signify the thing that is present, but they always signify what is absent (House= a place to live AND House= not mouse) -Word retains a trace of what it is not -Deconstruction trained a chain of readers to read for not only what is there/what is present, but to read for what is NOT there, what is not present -Symbolism is worth debating, it is worth going against -Can be challenging to read not only for what is present, but as well for what is pushed aside, absent or denied Marxism  Ideology: the beliefs and values with which people perceive and try to explain what they understand to be reality. Hegemony: the idea that a ruling class will make its ideas so pervasive that they are likely to be unthinkingly accepted by members of subordinate classes; popular usage: being in a position of power over someone else. The way in which goods were distributed in a society, effects and shapes a society Queer Theory  May encompass all forms of resistance sexual performance – resistant that is, to practices deemed hegemonic or “mainstream” – it destabilizes that very claim of hegemony or mainstream status gender is not born into us, it is inscribed to us based off how we act in society uses gender to create a theory how Marxism uses class Queer theory was a reading similar to some respect that of feminist theories Reading for resistance to social scripts of gender roles and sexuality in society Postcolonial Theory  Edward Said, Orientalism Argued that Western subjects view the rest of the world through very negative stereotypes (focusing on Orientalism  Happens when one colony puts itself in position over another  Edward Said (author) “Orientalism” (theory) Out of Place (book about postcolonial by Edward Said) Said argued that Western subjects view the rest of the world in a negative manner, especially the oriental east  Settler/invader cultures; this is what Canada was identified at first when settlers arrived Effects both colonizer and colony forever after  Example of this theory in a story: A Coyote Columbus Story, Simple Recipes October 16, 2012 ”Introduction to Poetry”  Poetry as performative --tensos -grows out of oral culture (daily motion)  Poetic form and creativity -(pg. 396): poetic rhythms called meter (analogy of poetry and dance) - (pg. 402): boundaries, techniques are only important to challenge author’s cross those boundaries -references to film and songs incorrect because some poems are less interesting than popular culture Leonard Cohen, “The Future” (pg. 625-627) -words can correlate with spoken work poetry -What is the different between the musical performance and readings? use of chorus is an important emphatic device (word-repent) controlling speed of son (sense of pacing) different tempo, pauses, slows down, musical background is heaving (in song) heavier sound increases empasanism back up singers (directly say repent) (complete Leonard’s thought) words have more clear meaning on the page rather than the idea pg 390 (end rhyme) “But love is the only engine of survival” -Persona (pg. 625) who is the persona of the poem kind of person who is speaking in the poem (Leonard Cohen) spiritual path, age, religious references, persona of a spiritual message trying to convey a message, preach…traditional perspective traditional persona: prophetic persona eg/ Jewish Prophet: uttering truth’s that people will forget October 19, 2012 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “Metrical Feet” (pg. 448-449) Sound, Repitition, Rhythm These are the fundamental of poetry -Scansion – metre “ a pattern of rhythm in poetry” – scansion is the method of determining the metre of poetry (Adds performance) Metre “a pattern of rhythm in poetry” . Work with them or exploits them to create a rhythm. words get arranged in a certain pattern or arrangement Steps- 1) Syllables: ‘ marks stressed syllables; breve marks unstressed syllables 2) Look for patterns in the stressed syllables ˘ ¯ iamb ¯ ˘ trochee, choree ˘ ˘ ¯ anapaest, antidactylus ¯ ˘ ˘ dactyl **How to memorize: The ones that begin with consonants begin with stressed syllable The words ‘dactyl’ and ‘trochee’ begin with a consonant, and both of these feet begin with a stressed syllable The words ‘iamb’ and ‘anapest’ begin with a vowel, and both of these feet begin with an unstressed syllable Eg/ Syllables: When e ver Rich and C ory went down town (10 syllables) Whenever Richard Cory went down town Whenev/er Rich/ard Co/ry went/ down town **The bolded symbols are a strong emphasis mark. **Step number is just how many symbols you have. Step 2 is marked by symbols. ***Step 3 is to look at the symbols and try to see if a pattern persists there. The pattern is stressed followed by unstressed. Look at where the emphasis is placed and mark it whit in ictus and a weaker when with a breve. Iambic pentameter is the metrical foot unit that consists of an unstressed syllable followed by stressed syllable. -Other common English Language poetic feet: Trochee= stressed, unstressed eg/ “Tyger, tiger, burning bright” (William Blake) =Dominant pattern is trocheetic. Anapest= unstressed, unstressed, stressed eg/Oh, give me a home where the buffalo roam Where the deer and the antelope play Dominant pattern: anapestic Dactyl= stressed, unstressed, unstressed Merrily, Merrily, onward we go! Number of feet in a lone of poetry: 2= dimeter 3= trimeter 4= tetrameter 5= pentameter 6= hexameter 7= heptameter 8= octameter accentual/syllabic system Coleridge, “metrical Feet” (448) Don’t need to know amphibrach nor the other thing Also don’t follow the stress of syllables in the anthology itself Spondee: a foot consisting of two stressed syllables, used for dramatic emphasis Interrupts flow or rhythm. A spondee says “Look here” Meter was said to be used before as a way for performers to remember their verse poem was meant as a memory tool for his children never meant to be published Edwin Arlington Robinson “Richard Cory” (515)  This poem will be used to show why meter matters  Emphasis with class stratification in poem  Perfect example of: Iambic pentameter  Initial substitution of spondee “We people…”  Expresses the confidence that people feel in knowing Richard Cory. But this was shown to be false as he took his own life towns people thought they could predict his life. how shocking to be confronted with interiority and violence Perspective of the town’s people totally legitimate and powerful but in the end, they totally missed it about who Richard Cory actually was Sense of confident in what they see and know and think they picked everything about this man. They only picked up their external and missed his inner turmoil. Went home and put a bullet through his head.  Robinson usually speaks about the internal tragedies of people, which is contrasting with the happiness or ordinariness that they may exude  You would expect the final line to be extremely different in terms of meter, but Robinson uses the normal meter. Thus, the use of an expected meter creates an unexpected effect  The shocking is actually shocking, even though it is contained within the everyday (i.e., in the regular, expected meter)  Regular rhythm may also show some kind of superficiality. It represents the townspeople’s perspective of Richard Cory, but within this regular meter, something unexpected happens (Regular rhythm and the reader’s perspective also can suggest superficiality ) Poem asks you to go back and ask what was the evidence for judging this life It was all superficial – none of it touched his inner turmoil. How shocking to finally confronted with evidence in inner turmoil.  Have the very routines of Richard Cory’s life represented by the regular meter, driven him to this despair?  Very conventional and regular metre to a poem that seems to depend on its major effect of surprise and unpredictable – severs the regularity of the metre and that there is a regular understanding of someone’s life  Poet was thought to be a conventional and unsurprising – ironic with this poem. By using the expected verse, does the unexpected – by using a conventional use of the metre and not using an unconventional way. That the shocking is shocking because it was shown in not a shocking way  Regular rhythm also suggest calm, “calm summer night”  background: he wrote a number of poems about
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