[ENGINEER 1P03] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 38 pages long Study Guide!

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McMaster
ENGINEER 1P03
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Climate Change: Where are we going?
Carbon dioxide is at .04%
400 parts per million
9’s
o 2/3 fewer humans
o 1 million plants and animals now extinct
o 90% more fish
o 1 billion tons less plastic
o 40% more phytoplankton
o Twice as many trees
o Three times more water in aquafers
o More ice
Nothing is linear: Hard to predict the future
o Drought is a big deal
California (
½ the fruits and vegetables come from there.
Big deal
Apparent 1.5-2 degree warming over the last 130,000 years
o IPPC hockey stick
Temperature is rising, there will be a lag in temperature.
Our temperature is 1.2 degrees more than the industrial revolution
Results
o More water vapor
Warmer atmosphere
Stronger climate events
Floods
Droughts
Greenhouse gases: CO2, N2O, CH4, H2O
o Joseph Fourier came up with the greenhouse gases effect (1824)
o A gas with three or more atoms in the molecule
Radiation is emitted in all direction, some away from the earth, some directly at
the earth, heating up the atmosphere.
o CO2 has increased 42% since the industrial revolution
Water vapour and clouds give 75% of the GHG effect
Carbon dioxide gives about 20% of the GHG effect
Trace gases give 5%
CO2 then makes up about 80% of the GHG of the non-water molecules
o Runaway warming: When the amount of increase in GHG is not comparable to the
amount of decrease by the natural processes.
I.P.C.C.
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o In 2009, decreed in Copenhagen that we should limit our warming to 2 deg. C allowing
for a irease to  pp usig Charey’s ostat.
The two degree threshold would be decidedly warmer than the earth has been
in a long time, and warm enough to eventually raise sea level by tens of meters.
o The I.E.A.’s aalysis is ased o oetioal odels hih do ot fully aout for
amplifying feedbacks such as methane releases from permafrost thawing.
If the temperature exceeds a 3 degree Celsius increase, we will not be able to stop Global
Warming
Humans cannot survive 35 degrees wet bulb temperature.
As ice surface is reduced, solar radiation is absorbed by the darker ocean instead of being
reflected off the bright ice back into space
o the Albedo effect, which, when it is reduced, increases warming
o with the loss of ice, permafrost thaws, releasing methane
Whatever the CO2 line stabilizes at will be the CO2 in the atmosphere for a while
We might have an increase of over 3+ ppm increase per year
o Natural sinks only absorb about 2 ppm of CO2 per year
o Therefore, to stay at the present rate, we need to decrease our consumption of CO2 by
50%
o Increase in CO2 is not even
Why are we not any hotter?
The natural sinks
o Oceans and plants
Global dimming
o The amount of sun hitting the earth is less than before
o Aerosols from burning fossil fuels.
.5 to 1.8 degree range of cooling
Aircraft Vapor trails
o 145 metric tons/year
o 2.4% of the CO2 in the atmosphere
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