ENVIRSC 1G03 Study Guide - Final Guide: Epicenter, Plate Tectonics, Submarine Earthquake

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Earthquakes - triggred by sudden slippage of rock along fault planes in the crust or mantle (releasing strain energy - higher strain = bigger shockwave) Seismic waves energy released during earthquakes pulverizes rocks, generates heat, and causes vibrations. Body waves primary waves travel though solid and liquid rock vibration is parallel (horizontal) fastest waves secondary waves travel through solid only rock vibration is perpendicular (verical) second fastest waves. Surface waves (most destructive - since on surface, closest to building and such) love waves - horizontal / snake-like reyleigh waves - vertical / ocean-like. Richter magnitude scale compensates for decreasing apmlitude w. increasing distance from epicentre - it is also logarithmic, 5 is ten time larger than 4 magnitude destructiveness. Liquefaction - when ground shaking causes water saturated soil to behave like liquid. Tsunamis can be caused by: submarine earthquake submarine landslides waves are created over epicentre water pulls back from shorelines before tsunami arrives.