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Chapter 11 & 12

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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 1HA3
Professor
Walter Peace
Semester
Fall

Description
SETTLEMENT PATTERNS: CHAPTER 11 Urbanization- the spread and growth of cities Locations of Cities  Most major cities are located on coastlines with access to natural breaks in transportation.  Many immigrants are moving toward the major cities for more job opportunities. Changing Patterns of Rural Population  Depopulation is a significant trend in rural areas as a result of Spatial concentration of economic activity i.e. Saskatchewan movement from small towns to large city  Counter-Urbanization- process of population decentralization  Rural population is generally increasingrural FARM population is generally decreasing  Exurbanization- the movement of household from urban areas to locations outside the urban area but within the commuting field  Urban Sprawl- the largely unplanned expansion of an urban area (typically discontinuous, leaving rural areas ) The Origins and Growth of Cities “Civilization create cities, but cities mold civilization”  Urbanization- the urban way of life; associated with a declining sense of community and increasingly complex social and economic organization as a result of increasing size, density, and heterogeneity  Cities originated in one of four ways 1. Agricultural surplus regions- i.e. Mexico, Peru 2. Marketplaces- i.e. Venice (Port city) 3. Military, defence or administrative centers i.e. Rome 4. Ceremonial centers- i.e. China  Economic base theory- theory that tries to explain in the growth or decline of particular regions or cities in terms of ‘basic’ and ‘non-basic’ economic activities: ‘basic’ goods are those produced for sale outside the city/region. World Cities Economic Characteristics  World cities are HQ’s for transnational companies  Producer services- banking, insurance, marketing, accounting  Gateway cities- a city located at a key point of entry to a major geographic region Cultural Characteristics  Culturally heterogeneous, serving home to diverse ethnic identities  Sites of various spectacles and events Political Characteristics  Complex relationship between world cities and levels of government  Tend to receive support from governments as they strive to compete with other world cities. URBAN FORM AND GOVERNANCE: CHAPTER 12 Concentric Zone Model  Central business district, transitional area of industries and older houses, the rest are residential (from center, outward)  Combination of theoretical logic and first-hand experience of the real world  Useful in the context of changing residential character because of the operation of ecological processes Limitations: 1. Explicit use of physical science (competition, invasion, succession and dominance) 2. Ethnic groups are identified solely in terms of area of origin 3. The premise that ethnic groups wish to remain separated from each other is clearly a generalization Sector Model  Developed by Hoyt (1939) in response to criticism of concentric zone model  Based on a claim that internal structure conditioned not solely by di
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