# GEOG 1HA3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Degenerative Disease, Population Geography, Spatial Analysis

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
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Geo 1HA3 Midterm Review
- Find lecture 1
Lecture 2: Geographic Literacy
Space: Areal extent on the earth’s surface
Absolute Space: An understanding of space as a distinct, physically real entity. It is measurable, and has
definable boundaries.
- Objective - well defined, thus the same for everyone
- Example: The McMaster campus is 300 acres
- Maps:
o Mathematical projections: These maps try to represent the world as accurately as
possible with little distortions, and definable boundaries (ex: world map)
Relative Space: Used to specify space in a subjective manner
- Subjective based on or influenced by personal feelings and opinions
- Can change over time
- Example: Distance measured in terms of transport costs, travel time, mileage, and perceived
distance
o As it is different from person to person, some people may say McMaster is large and
spacious, whereas others may say it is too crowded.
- Maps:
o Intentionally distort distance and direction as this is not the purpose of these maps.(Ex:
underground subway system map is intentionally distorted to reflect what matters
routes of the system)
Location: Refers to a particular position in space. Where something is situated.
1. Absolute (mathematical) location: Point on the earth’s surface expressed by a coordinate system
(ex. latitude and longitude). Uses topographic maps.
2. Relative location: location of places relative to something else. This is subjective. (ex. Some may
say McMaster is a short drive from Toronto, others may say it is a horrific commute from
Toronto)
3. Nominal (toponym) location: A place name (Ex: Hamilton, Southern Ontario, etc)
Places Can be Contested depending on religious, cultural, and political perspectives
you may call the same location other things (ex: In Ireland a certain city is called Derry or
London Derry depending on the factors listed above)
Place: location that has a particular identity, meaning or significance to a group or individual.
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- Examples: Church, Your house/Past houses, ground zero, grave yard, prison, leaning tower of
Pisa, Venice, McMaster, the lecture hall
- Location + Cultural/human meaning = Place
- Sense of place: Personally significant attachments (Ex. My hometown).
- Flavor: local and regional characteristics of culture
- Sacred places: places where there is a an additional significance to the place (religious)
Placelessness: homogeneity and standardization. Lack local variety and character.
- Examples:
o East side marios bad attempt at trying to recreate little Italy because you know it it
not authentic and all east side Mario restaurants are decorated the same
o Wal-Mart purposely standardizes their stores so customers get the same feel
o McDonalds
o Suburbs
o Suburban strip malls
- Note placelessness means that collectively to society it does not have a sense of place, but to
an individual it can still have meaning
Distance: amount of space between 2 or more locations
- Absolute/physical distance: Actual distance from one point to another (m, ft, km, etc)
- Travel distance: travel time from one point to another
- Economic/communication distance cost of shipping something, long distance telephone
minutes
- Psychological distance ex: distance from one place to another may seem shorter while having
fun with others, versus travelling the distance alone
Distribution:
- Geographic phenomena: distance and organization
- Three forms of distribution:
1. Density: frequency that the geographic phenomenon exists within space (Ex: how many
apartments are there in a specific area)
o Ratio: # phenomenon/area
o Low density = 3 apartments per 1 sq km
o High density = 100 apartments per 1 sq km
2. Concentration/Dispersion: how something is spread over an area
o Clustered/agglomerated: Objects within area are close together (Ex Within Ontario,
Universities are clustered in Southern Ontario)
o Dispersed/Scattered: Objects in area are spaced apart ( Ex Universities within southern
Ontario are dispersed Meaning they are dispersed in different cities on in Hamilton,
one in Guelph, 3 Toronto, etc.)
3. Pattern
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a. Linear: straight pattern (Ex. houses along a street)
b. Random: a pattern with no specific order or logic behind its arrangement
c. Uniform/ordered: a pattern with logic and order behind its arrangement
Lecture 3: Geographic Literacy
Region: a part of the earths surface that displays internal homogeneity and is relatively distinct
(different or heterogeneous) from surrounding areas according to some criteria. Essentially, parts within
region are similar to each other but different than surrounding areas.
- Criteria can be: human geographic or physical geographic or combination of both
- Have internal homogeneity (Consistent) and external heterogeneity (differences)
- Human or cultural regions different terms for the same thing, spatial patterns
- Physical geographic regions cool vs. hot or arid or humid
Regionalization: The process where we simplify our complex world and its human and physical
geographic patterns and processes into regions
- Locations on earths surface are assigned into regions based on criteria
Landscape/cultural landscape: the outcome of interactions between people and their environments; the
visible human imprint on the land
- How we modified the environment
- There are many cultural landscapes each cultural group imprints itself on landscape in
different ways
- Example: Southern Ontario
o Rural areas winding roads with agricultural areas surrounding it
o Urban and suburban areas straight roads with suburban areas surrounding it
Diffusion: The movement or spread of a phenomenon over geographic space and time
- Example: infections disease, spread of music, style, fashion, etc
- Forms of diffusion
1. Relocation: the spread of ideas, cultural characteristics from one area to another via the
physical movement of people (ex. immigrants introducing pubs, churches, different types of
food, etc)
2. Expansion: the spread of innovations within a single area in a snowballing process; 3 subtypes:
a. Hierachal: spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other
persons or places of power (ideas leapfrog from one significant place or person to
another, temporarily bypassing all those in between) ; ex: hip hop or rap music
b. Contagious: the rapid and widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the
population. Happens without relocation. Ex: ideas being placed on the internet
c. Stimulus: spread of an underlying principle even though the characteristic itself fails to
diffuse. This means a particular idea or innovation may be rejected but the underlying
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## Document Summary

Absolute space: an understanding of space as a distinct, physically real entity. Objective - well defined, thus the same for everyone. Example: the mcmaster campus is 300 acres: mathematical projections: these maps try to represent the world as accurately as possible with little distortions, and definable boundaries (ex: world map) Relative space: used to specify space in a subjective manner. Subjective based on or influenced by personal feelings and opinions. Intentionally distort distance and direction as this is not the purpose of these maps. (ex: underground subway system map is intentionally distorted to reflect what matters routes of the system) Location: refers to a particular position in space. Where something is situated: absolute (mathematical) location: point on the earth"s surface expressed by a coordinate system (ex. latitude and longitude). Uses topographic maps: relative location: location of places relative to something else. Some may say mcmaster is a short drive from toronto, others may say it is a horrific commute from.

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