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Lecture 2-8 Exam Review

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Michael Mercier

Geo 1HA3 Midterm Review - Find lecture 1 Lecture 2: Geographic Literacy Space: Areal extent on the earth’s surface Absolute Space: An understanding of space as a distinct, physically real entity. It is measurable, and has definable boundaries. - Objective - well defined, thus the same for everyone - Example: The McMaster campus is 300 acres - Maps: o Mathematical projections: These maps try to represent the world as accurately as possible with little distortions, and definable boundaries (ex: world map) Relative Space: Used to specify space in a subjective manner - Subjective – based on or influenced by personal feelings and opinions - Can change over time - Example: Distance measured in terms of transport costs, travel time, mileage, and perceived distance o As it is different from person to person, some people may say McMaster is large and spacious, whereas others may say it is too crowded. - Maps: o Intentionally distort distance and direction as this is not the purpose of these maps.(Ex: underground subway system map is intentionally distorted to reflect what matters – routes of the system) Location: Refers to a particular position in space. Where something is situated. 1. Absolute (mathematical) location: Point on the earth’s surface expressed by a coordinate system (ex. latitude and longitude). Uses topographic maps. 2. Relative location: location of places relative to something else. This is subjective. (ex. Some may say McMaster is a short drive from Toronto, others may say it is a horrific commute from Toronto) 3. Nominal (toponym) location: A place name (Ex: Hamilton, Southern Ontario, etc)  Places Can be Contested – depending on religious, cultural, and political perspectives you may call the same location other things (ex: In Ireland a certain city is called Derry or London Derry depending on the factors listed above) Place: location that has a particular identity, meaning or significance to a group or individual. - Examples: Church, Your house/Past houses, ground zero, grave yard, prison, leaning tower of Pisa, Venice, McMaster, the lecture hall - Location + Cultural/human meaning = Place - Sense of place: Personally significant attachments (Ex. My hometown). - Flavor: local and regional characteristics of culture - Sacred places: places where there is a an additional significance to the place (religious) Placelessness: homogeneity and standardization. Lack local variety and character. - Examples: o East side marios – bad attempt at trying to recreate little Italy because you know it it not authentic and all east side Mario restaurants are decorated the same o Wal-Mart – purposely standardizes their stores so customers get the same feel o McDonalds o Suburbs o Suburban strip malls - Note – placelessness means that collectively to society it does not have a sense of place, but to an individual it can still have meaning Distance: amount of space between 2 or more locations - Absolute/physical distance: Actual distance from one point to another (m, ft, km, etc) - Travel distance: travel time from one point to another - Economic/communication distance – cost of shipping something, long distance telephone minutes - Psychological distance – ex: distance from one place to another may seem shorter while having fun with others, versus travelling the distance alone Distribution: - Geographic phenomena: distance and organization - Three forms of distribution: 1. Density: frequency that the geographic phenomenon exists within space (Ex: how many apartments are there in a specific area) o Ratio: # phenomenon/area o Low density = 3 apartments per 1 sq km o High density = 100 apartments per 1 sq km 2. Concentration/Dispersion: how something is spread over an area o Clustered/agglomerated: Objects within area are close together (Ex – Within Ontario, Universities are clustered in Southern Ontario) o Dispersed/Scattered: Objects in area are spaced apart ( Ex – Universities within southern Ontario are dispersed – Meaning they are dispersed in different cities – on in Hamilton, one in Guelph, 3 Toronto, etc.) 3. Pattern a. Linear: straight pattern (Ex. houses along a street) b. Random: a pattern with no specific order or logic behind its arrangement c. Uniform/ordered: a pattern with logic and order behind its arrangement Lecture 3: Geographic Literacy Region: a part of the earth’s surface that displays internal homogeneity and is relatively distinct (different or heterogeneous) from surrounding areas according to some criteria. Essentially, parts within region are similar to each other but different than surrounding areas. - Criteria can be: human geographic or physical geographic or combination of both - Have internal homogeneity (Consistent) and external heterogeneity (differences) - Human or cultural regions – different terms for the same thing, spatial patterns - Physical geographic regions – cool vs. hot or arid or humid Regionalization: The process where we simplify our complex world and its human and physical geographic patterns and processes into regions - Locations on earths surface are assigned into regions based on criteria Landscape/cultural landscape: the outcome of interactions between people and their environments; the visible human imprint on the land - How we modified the environment - There are many cultural landscapes – each cultural group imprints itself on landscape in different ways - Example: Southern Ontario o Rural areas – winding roads with agricultural areas surrounding it o Urban and suburban areas – straight roads with suburban areas surrounding it Diffusion: The movement or spread of a phenomenon over geographic space and time - Example: infections disease, spread of music, style, fashion, etc - Forms of diffusion 1. Relocation: the spread of ideas, cultural characteristics from one area to another via the physical movement of people (ex. immigrants introducing pubs, churches, different types of food, etc) 2. Expansion: the spread of innovations within a single area in a snowballing process; 3 subtypes: a. Hierachal: spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places of power (ideas leapfrog from one significant place or person to another, temporarily bypassing all those in between) ; ex: hip hop or rap music b. Contagious: the rapid and widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population. Happens without relocation. Ex: ideas being placed on the internet c. Stimulus: spread of an underlying principle even though the characteristic itself fails to diffuse. This means a particular idea or innovation may be rejected but the underlying idea may be accepted. Example: IBM & Apple competition – apple and ibm were both selling the same idea. The apple innovation wasn’t successful, but ibm was successful even though they were selling the same idea. d. Spatial or social diffusion: the ipod. Initially ipods were not popular, but as time goes on, more and more people know about them and own them. Rate of growth: starts slowly, increases rapidly then becomes gradual. S shaped graph: Perception and Mental Mapping - Our engagement with physical or human environments is through a personal lens – what we know, what we think about the world, how we perceive it - Our experiences with the environment are actually how we perceive them to be rather than how they actually are - Mental maps: a unique personal representation of reality o Unique to individuals – individual maps can differ in orientation, features used as landmarks, etc o Imperfect knowledge o Perceptions drive behaviour Lecture 4: The Map Social & Cultural Interpretations Maps - 2D graphical representations of the world and depict spatial relationships - Analyze spatial information - Are socially constructed o Reflect the power of the people that produce them – cartographer. Thus, maps should be read with a critic al eye. Telling Lies via Maps - Statistics are a form of lies (data can be manipulated) - How to lie with maps o Small scale maps  Obscures the scale map and lacks other details, manipulation of area features, lines, etc. - White lies vs. Big lies o White lies: scale, lacking details, lines , use of bigger symbols, selective and incomplete, distort geometry, suppress feautures etc. o Big lie: Argentina postage –  Postage stamps depict that Argentina owns Falkland Islands and British held islands to the east and Antarctica. They deny the legitimacy of the British occupation. Essentially through maps on postage stamps they are showing false boundaries for propaganda. Social and Cultural History of Maps - Intended to solve spatial problems o Historical similarities:  Use of pictographs  Drawing on cave walls o They provide information for others  Ex: which land is better to hunt relative to other areas - Navigational Chart or Map o Help with the process of establishing ones position and planning and following a route o Ex: water travelling o Extremely accurate o Ex: nautical charts help navigate travel through water to reach islands - Maps reflect current knowledge - Maps reflect fears and angst among populations - Maps are a statement of power and authority o Example: the sun never sets on the empire o Colouration (pink) shows areas of conquer – thus regions that are not coloured are not part of the British empire, thus in darkness Key Considerations for Maps 1. Scale: the relationship or ratio between the size of a feature on the map and the same item on the earth’s surface (note: the smaller the scale of the map, the larger the area of the earth’s surface represented by that map, ex. Map of the world has a smaller scale than a map of the McMaster campus) - Represented as a ratio or fraction - Large scale vs. small scale o Small scale (1/1000) – represents larger area o Large scale ((1/10) – represents smaller area - Small scale maps: show large are and little detail - Large scale maps: show small area and detail 2. Perspective: Orientation of the map. - Indicated by the north arrow or compass rose - North is typically at the top; exception: o Antipocentric maps where south is at the top 3. Projection: the method by which the curved surface of the earth is represented on a flat map - Note: all map projections result in some distortion of at least one of the four main map properties (area, shape, distance, and direction) - Main types of distortion: distance, direction and area - Goodes Projection: Orange peel map – attempt at preserving shape & size (resulted in gaps in image which makes distance calculations hard) - 3 main types of projections: Azimuthal, Cylindrical, Conical 4. Map Type: Different spatial data, and spatial analysis demands different types of maps - 2 purposes of maps: 1) Accurate representation of data (ex. google maps, topographic maps) 2) Solving spatial problems (several types used to solve spatial problems) - Dot maps: reveal patterns of spatial concentration or dispersion. Useful for data such as towns, wheat farming, cemeteries, incidence of disease, etc. Each dot represents occurrence of phenomenon being mapped. - Choropleth maps: data displayed using tonal shading that are proportional to the density of the phenomena in each areal unit. Sacrifice details for improved appearance. - Example: Population per square mile by state - Isopleth maps: Consists of a series of lines (isopleths or isolines), that link points having the same value. Examples: contour maps, isochrome maps (lines of equal time), isotim maps (lines of equal transport cost), weather/climate - Cartograms: space distorted to emphasize particular attributes. Distorted to represent statistics. Example: presidential elections, or economic growth Geographic Information System - Desktop Computer based tool that combines the storage, display, analysis and mapping of spatially referenced data. - Tool for analyzing complex spatial problems - Multiple layers Lecture 5: Population Geography – The Big Picture - Current global population: 7.1 billion - Canada: 34 million, 35 most populous - World population increasing 80 million per year Questions: - Where do all these people live - What factors lie under this distribution - What are implications and consequences of this distribution Objective: - Describe - Explain - Interpret Demography: the study of population - From Greek: o Demo – populace, people o Graph – study Population geography: study of spatial component of demography - Population geographers examine: o Population growth or decline o Spatial differential growth or decline of a population  Example: babies born in poor and rich countries – Advantages and disadvantages o Causes and consequences of population change  Example: cause - why are more babies born in certain parts of the world. Consequence – increase in number of elderly people – impacts health care o Spatial distribution of population and consequences with respect to global resources History of Population Growth – I - Change in global population levels over the Holocene period (12, 000 years) o 12 000 yrs BP o 2000 yrs BP – 4 million o 1650 AD – 250 million o 1800 AD – 1 million o 50 years – 4 billion o 25 years – 6 billion Factors Contributing to (significant) Population Change - First Agricultural revolution (12,000 years ago) – introduction of f
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