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Geo 1HA3 exam Review.docx

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McMaster University
Michael Mercier

Geo 1HA3 Review Top 5 cultural landscapes voted: 1. The Eiffel Tower (Paris, France) 2. Leaning Tower of Pisa (Pisa, Italy) 3. The Coliseum (Rome, Italy) 4. Statue of Christ the Redeemer (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) 5. Moai (Statues) of Easter Island (Easter Island, Chile) Starting at lecture 9 Feb 5 Daily routines (going to school, what you wear, coming home etc…) are cultural attributes and are based on religious beliefs, language spoken, ethnic/ancestral origin, age/gender and individual personality Culture is the way of life of the members of society. Cultural practices vary over geographical space (Canadian vs US culture-> eagle vs beaver) Sub-culture -> sexual minorities, different from the norm but still apart of culture overall Cultural Geographers is the spatial distribution of cultural activities, their hearth areas and the process of diffusion across space (blue jeans) Non- material and Material forms of culture Non- Material culture: 1) Mentifacts: Key attitudinal elements/ values 2) Sociofacts: Norms involved in group formation Material culture Artifacts: All the tangible elements related to how people live their lives. Material Culture is split into two categories, Folk and Popular Folk: Cultural practices and material culture (homogenous, rural and sparse) Popular: tend to be heterogeneous, large, and urban (pop music) Cultural region is an area with a degree of homogeneity in cultural characteristics Cultural Landscape: the outcome of interactions between people (societies) and their environments; the visible human imprint on the land Cultural landscapes reflect human modifications of the land, i.e. Urban and rural. Cultural Adaptation is the adaption, by people and cultures, to the challenges posed by the physical environment Lecture 10 (ref ch 6) Language is culturally variable-> learnt from a very young age Today there are less than 6000 different languages ->decline from 7000 prior to the European colonization Language family (indo-european & sino Tibetan) Language branch->subset of family with a more recent origin (past several thousand years) (roman languages: French, Spanish, Italian) (German languages, English, German, Dutch) Dialect: regional variations of language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation (English in NA vs Europe) The importance of language in identity and nationalism are language families, global language Lecture 11 (ref ch 6 241-251) Religion: an appreciation and understanding of our place in the world. Acts to unify all those that believe into a single community Migrants will adopt the language of the country they moved to over time but very rarely adopt to another culture *fact: 12.79mil ppl or 43.2% of Camadians are Christian: Roman Catholic It is important to note that ethnic religions do not advertise their religion but content to have their population believe the way they do Hinguism: Northern India-polytheistic (more than one god) Judaism: Middle East (ie. Jerusalem) –monotheistic (only one god) Buddhism: related to Hinduism->difused to the east (china, korea) Christianity: related to Judaism -> the role of missionaries and European colonization Islam: related to both Judaism and Christianity Lecture 12 (ref ch 7 268-281) Race & Ethnicity Nationality: citizenship -> an affiliation with a group whose racial, cultural, religious or linguistic characteristics, or national origins distinguish it from the rest of the population Ethnicity: identity(immutable, cannot change where your family is from) (dilutable, a mix of different ethnic backgrounds)-> Ethnic Group: a group whose members perceive themselves as different from others because of a common ancestry and/or shared culture Ethnicity, religion and language are mechanisms through which culture is expressed (cultural landscape, built landscape) Race is based on genetically imparted phsiognomical features (mostly facial features) of an individual (ie, skin colour)-> race is a social construct Identity: a self-identification of how an individual perceives themselves, rather than their ancestors Lecture 13 (ch 7 cont) Recall key concpets: Location: refers to a particular meaning or significance associated with it (home) Place: a location with some particular meaning or significance associated with it (ACC) Landscape: the visible human imprint on the land (natural, physical, environment) urban,rural,suburban Cultural landscape: the outcome of interactions between people (societies) and their environments (a result of cultural adaptation, all inhabited parts of the earth) Symbolic landscapes are symbols of a culture and what it stands for (ie, statue of liberty) *note, the ancient 7 wonders of the world was from the famous Greek Scholar Heodotus Culture is divisive Lecture 14 (ch 11) urban and rural settlements are usually defined in relation to one another (whatever us not urban is rural and vice versa) Global Pop: 50% if the population lives in a rural area (Africa, asisa, oceania, Europe, N and S America) Urbanization: urban forms of living are relatively recent Nucleated-> rural farm area with most of the population (houses) clustered around a central area like a church for example clustered rural settlement Re-population or Counter-Urbanization isa demographic and social process whereby people move from urban areas to rural areas. It would be caused due to tele- commuting, decentralized industrial activities Urban Sprawl is using up an urban area to its absolute limits Gemeinschaft: small towns or villages communal ways of life in rural areas. Strong personal connections Gesellschaft: depersonalized life within the city. Is there such a thing as an urban way of life that is somehow distinct from the rural way of living? Wirth: high density, population is heterogenous (diverse) Lecture 15 (ch 11 cont) What is a city? Is it just a really large town? We can think of cities as/have: population, innovation, power, change, diversity Cities are civilized The rise (or emergence) of cities is a recent phenomenon. The proces
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