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GEOG 1HA3 (50)


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Michael Mercier

Introduction Geography  What is where? Why there? Why care?  Physical o Study of patterns and processes of the physical world o Physical environment  Human o Study of spatial patterns and processes of the human world (people, culture, economy, settlement, political and social structure, behaviour and the significant meanings attached to the places where these activities take place) o Social environment o Description of spatial organization of people, places and human phenomena o Explanation of the processes that produce these patterns o Interpretation of what these patterns mean Key Concepts in Human Geography Concepts  Space – areal extent o Absolute space: perceptual, always remains the same, making maps, mathematical projections o Relative space: objective, can be different, topological maps  Location – particular position in space o Absolute (mathematical) location: latitude and longitude coordinates o Relative location: “this is close to that” o Nominal (toponym) location – a place name, contested, provides locational understanding  Place – identity or meaning or significance o Local and regional characteristics of culture o Location + human meaning = place o Sacred place: church, cemetaries o Sense of place – personally significant attachments o Placelessness – homogeneity and standardization  Distance – amount of space between two or ore locations o Absolute/physical distances (feet, km, miles) o Travel distance (one hour, two hours) o Economic/communication distance (cost) o Psychological distance  Distribution – distance organization o Density – a measure of the number of geographic facts per unit area o Concentration/Dispersion – how something is spread over an area  Clustered (agglomerated) – high concentration in one area  Dispersed (scattered) – low concentration in one area  Pattern – spatial arrangement of objects More concepts  Region - a part of the Earth’s surface that displays internal homogeneity and is relatively distinct from surrounding areas according to some criteria o Human or physical or both o Interal homogeneity (uniformity) vs external heterogeneity (difference) o Regionalization – the process where we simplify our complex world and its human and physical geographic patterns and processes into regions (perspective matters)  Landscapes – visible features of the land or area o Natural, physical or human, cultural o Cultural landscape – the outcome of interactions between people and their environments, the visible imprint on the land  Diffusion – the movement or spread of a geographic phenomena across space and over time o Relocation – spread of ideas, cultural characteristics from one area to another via movement of people o Expansion – spread of innovations within a single area in a snowballing process  Hierarchical – leapfrog from one to another or city to city  Contagious – rapid and widespread diffusion of characteristic  Perception and mental mapping o Mental map – a unique personal representation of reality Geographical Tools  Maps are socially constructed representations of the world that communicate information, reflect current knowledge and power  Scale, projection, perspective and type (dot, chloropleth, isopleth, cartogram)  GIS Population Geography  Population geography – study of spatial components of demography o Significant populations changes associated with  First agricultural revolution (12000 years ago)  Increased food production, labour specialization and settlement  Second agricultural revolution (18 and 19 century)  Increased food production, standard of living and declining death rates  Population dynamics o Fertility  Crude birth rate = (B/P)*1000  General fertility rate = (B/P(females 15-49)*1000  TFR = average number of children women will have o Morality  Crude death rate = (D/P)*1000  Infant morality rate = (D0-1/B)*1000  Life expectancy = average number of years of life o Migration  Push-pull factors  Economic, political, environmental  Forced vs impelled vs free vs illegal  Medical geography – spatial context of disease  Health geography – spatial context of health and well being o Distribution, diffusion, determinants, delivery o Epidemic – temporary but widespread o Pandemic – epidemic on greater scale o Epidemiology – study of incidence, transmission and control of diseases o Epidemiological transition – changing prevalence of infectious and generative diseases  Age of pestilence and famine (1+2) – decline of infectious and incline of degenerative  Age of degenerate diseases (3+4) – age of degenerative disease Social/Cultural Geography Culture – the way of life of the members of a society, tied to values, beliefs and lifestyles Cultural region – area with a degree of homogeneity in cultural characteristics Cultural landscape – outcome of interactions between people and their environments, the visible human imprint on the land Cultural adaption – constant adaption by people and cultures to the challenges posed by the physical environment Language  Language family – closely related languages that likely share a common and ancient origin o E.g. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan  Language branch – a subset of a language family with a more recent origin o E.g. Indo-European (Romance (French, Spanish, Italian) and Germanic (English, German and Dutch)) Religion – set of beliefs and associated activities that facilitates an appreciation and understanding of our place in the world and acts to unify all those that believe into a single community  Christianity (1/3 of population), Islam (1/5), Hinduism/Buddhism/Judaism  16% non religious in the world, 24% in Canada  Cultural and religious beliefs: each religion has its own beliefs and attitudes, what is important to one can be different to another  The relationship between humanity and nature o Hierarchical relationship between gods, humans and nature o Non-Hierarchical  Secularism – separation of government and social/cultural ways of life form religious institutions  Migration and diffusion o Different spatial distributions: some religions are spatially widespread while others are more concentrated o Spatial diffusion: migrants bring their religion to new home  Universalizing and ethnic religion o Universalizing - attempts to have a global influence and to appeal to people in all areas of the world  Buddhism: offshoot of Hinduism which spread from India, China, Korea and Mongolia  Christianity: offshoot of Judaism which spread through Mediterranean region via missionaries  Islam: hearth in the middle east but more Arabic o Ethnic – appeals to a particular group of people, usually living in one region of the world but do not seek to convert others  Hinduism: cultural hearth in north India, polytheistic  Judaism: hearth in Middle East and spread through Europe  Identity and conflict o Remains one of the most obvious ways that world is divided because it is central to how people identify themselves  Religious landscapes o Religion is expressed through sacred places and geographic space for symbolic religious purposes and activities Race and Ethnicity  Ethnicity – an affiliation with a group whose racial, cultural, religious, linguistic characteristics or national origins distinguish it from the rest o It is immutable and dilutable o Ethnicity, religion and language is a mechanism through which culture is expressed  Ethnic group – a group whose members perceive themselves as different from others because of a common ancestry and/or shared culture  Canadian census o Origin or ancestry: the roots or ethnic background of an individual via their familial history  Issues: How far back in time? Multiple origins? o Race: based on a genetically imparted physiological features  Issues: Significance of race, ambiguity of terms, changes in used of terms o Identity: self identification  Issues: tied to anything  Race and perceived race o Race – genetically distinct subgroup of human/species  Socially constructed  Sub groups and physical differences o Perceived race – how an individual looks at another and perceives their race o Ethnic group – groups of people shared ancestral origin with cultural traditions that originate from particular hearth area  Spatial patterns: ethnicity and Race (USA)  Hispanic American (15%), African American (5%), Asian American (5%) and American Indian (1%)  Regional patterns o Clear regional patterns based on migration patterns and proximity to hearth regions  Patterns within cities o Central parts of large American cities o Migration patterns of African-Americans o 1/3 of Chicago is African-American, only 8% in Illinois Cultural and Symbolic Landscapes  Symbolic landscapes – symbols of a culture and what it stands for  7 Wonders (ancient) o Greek scholar (Herodotus), ~2500 years ago  “things to see before you die” o Spatially concentrated, all existed >2000 years ago, only one remains o Heemskerk (16 century) drew renditions of the wonders o Lighthouse of Alexandria, Mausoleum at Halicarnassusm, Colossus of Rhodes (Statue of Greek God Helios), Temple of Artemis, Statue of Zeus, Hanging Gardens of Babylon and Pyramids of Giza  7 Wonders (modern) o Many lists such as medieval world and Modern lists o Modern wonders: more spatially dispersed and reflect many cultures o 100 million votes were cast for the most recent 7 (+1) modern sites o Great Wall of China, Monastery of Petro, Chichen Itza, Machu Picchu, Colosseum of Rome, Taj Mahal, Christ the Redeemer and Pyramids of Giza Cities and Settlement Rural  50% of the world lives in rural areas  Rural settlement is dispersed or clustered  Issues o Depopulation o Repopulation and counter-urbanization o Rural urban fringe  Transition zone between urban (suburban) and rural areas  Government legislation has intended to slow down  Urban sprawl – the largely unplanned and low density expansion of urban land uses into surrounding rural areas Rural vs Urban  Gemeinschaft: communal, personal contacts, rural  Gesellschaft: depersonalized, anonymous, urban City – relatively permanent and highly organized centre of population, of greater size and importance than a town or village  Centres of large, diverse and densely concentrated populations  Centres of technological change and innovation  Centres of concentrations of power and  Centres of culture change  Places that reflect social, economic and political diversity  Civilization – a group of people connected to an urban society  Neighbourhoods – social and/or economic homogeneity, some level of sense of community Urban Origin  Agricultural surplus theory o Nomadic hunter-gatherers, domestication of plants and animals, technology, settlements and labour specialization  Alternative theories o Defensive settlements, ceremonial or religious function or economic and trade locations  Agricultural revolution = urbanization = culture Urban – exceeding some threshold of population or density (demographic) and the existence or absence of economic activities (economic) Urbanism – social or cultural way of thinking about the city Urban morphology – the form or physical structure of the city  Three models that explain the morphology of North American Cities  Concentric Zone Model (Ernest Burgess) o Chicago in 1920s o Residential neighbourhoods come to be associated with particular social groups o Concentric zones each with neighbourhoods based on social status  CBD focus of commercial, social, civic life and transport  Zone of transition  Zone of workers home  High class residences  Commuter zone  Multiple Nuclei model (Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman)  Sector Model (Homer Hoyt) Urbanization – urban change is measured with respect to two dimensions of growth (relative and absolute growth)  Urban growth (absolute) – an increase in the absolute size of a city (i.e. an increase in the number of people or/or an increase in the area of land occupied by the city)  Urbanization (relative) – the process of a society/country becoming (more) urban o Key measure: an increasing proportion of the population living in cities o De-urbanization, the percentage goes down (urban to rural or epidemic) Spatial Variations in Levels of Urbanization  Level of urbanization (overtime) o 1800: ~3%, 1900: 15%, Today: 50% (Africa (31%) and Asia (33%)) and Europe, North and South America, etc. >75% o 2030: ~60% Large-Cities and Mega Cities  Recent urban growth = more large cities o 1950: 8 cities of >5 million o 2015: 56 cities of >5 million  Projected urban growth = more mega cities o 2009: 21 cities of >10 million o 2025: 29 cities of >10 million Social Spatial Segregation  Social spatial segregation - The degree to which a minority group is spatially segregated (clustered) from the charter group o Different social divisions exist in urban places (socio-economic class, age, ethnicity, race, etc) o Concerned with the differential spatial distribution of minority and carter groups o Minority groups are not spatially distributed uniformly (evenly) across residential space, in relation to the charter group o Two forms of social spatial segregation  Congregation – residential clustering by choice  (Involuntary) segregation – residential clustering by structural constraints and discrimination  Why does spatial segregation exist o 1. Minimize conflict o 2. Preserve culture o 3. Feeds fear of others  Segregation of visible minorities vs cultural minorities (look like charter group but different practices) Assimilation  Assimilation – the process whereby minority groups slowly, over time, adopt identities, practices, etc. of the charter group and as a result become less different o Behavioural assimilation – acquisition of cultural practices by the minority group o Structural assimilation – penetration of social strata by the minority group o As assimilation occurs, the degree of segregation (spatial isolation) declines Segregation and Assimilation  Peach (1996) – a three generational model of assimilation o Immigrants – ethnic ghettos o Second generation – ethnic villages o Third generation – ethnic suburbs  According to Peach, a strong geographical link exists where people live and their degree of cultural assimilation Acculturation  Acculturation – adaption to the charter culture, but also preservation of minority culture o Assimilation: occurs when perceived differences between charter and minority are small o Acculturation: occurs when differences are greater  Spatial propinquity – a measure of social cohesion and proximity o Greater propinquity means less social interaction with others and making assimilation more challenging The Role of Culture  Each urban landscape is unique, but most share commonalities with others  The commo
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