Lecture 16 What is GIS? 11/10/2011
What is GIS?
Is not new (> 45 years of R&D) however, it is consistently evolving
Today it is a multibillion dollar business used in many sectors of our economy
What is Geotechnology?
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Inventory, analyze aspects of the world
Takes numbers and words on data bases and puts them on a map
Organizes collection of hardware, data, people that work together to manage, map, analyze geographic
Linking data to place
Why is it important?
GIS powerfully integrates many different types of data
Helps support sound decisions making processes
Provides more meaningful analytics
GIS adds value to existing data Leverages existing IT data investments
GIS makes information presentation relevant
Empowers people to see and take action
Allows rapid evaluations of alternatives
Map of voter turnout
5 Things that can be Gained from VIG?
Diffusion of ideas
Other Human Geography Applications
Population and health geographies
Geographies of cities and settlement Week 11 11/10/2011
Lecture 17 The Social Geography of the City Week 11 11/10/2011
See Norton Ch 13
To what extent do (Canadian) cities conform to the concentric zone model?
What does the social geography of Toronto, Montreal, Hamilton, etc. Look like?
What are the current trends?
Patterns Form, arrangement of phenomena in space
Processes Forces/agents of change
Canadian vs. American Cities
1971 The North American City (Yeates and Garner)
1986 The Myth of the North American City (Marcer and Goldberg)
Are Canadian cities essentially the same as American cities?
In general, Canadian cities:
Are more compact
Have higher population densities
Have lower levels of poverty/disparity Week 11 11/10/2011
Feature greater investment in public transit
Feature greater public investment in infrastructure
Have experienced less racial tension
Result▯ Canadian cities perceived to be more “livable” than American cities
Pattern/process vary over time and space
Why do cities look the way they do?
The City as Social Space
Place, language, religion, ethnicity, nationality, class, gender, etc.
Elements of culture
Geographically expressed (on urban landscape)
Social mosaic (of the city)
Reflection of broader societal conditions (e. trends in economic restructuring; age/ family structure; and
immigration determine the social geography of the city▯ the city as a microcosm of society
Patterns of social differentiation change over time, Ie. Social geography of the city changes over time
Post WWII Societal Trends Affecting Canadian Cities
Deindustrialization Increase in service sector employment, free trade/globalization▯ impacts on urban,
regional, global economies
Ie. Changing employment structure of Hamilton in post WWII era
Changes in age structure/ family and household formation Week 11 11/10/2011
Increase in average age, decrease in number of children (% of Canada’s population growth and development (mixture of socio=economic groups with elite near escarpment)
Walkup apartments, 1941 pop. = 6,500
City Hall (1959), zoning bylaws allow highrise development (1961)
In 1943, 7,600
In 1963, 77,000
19601974 is one of massive redevelopment
Pop in 1961= 8,000, 1974= 9,800
Highrise apartment boom density; demolition, social change (family status)
Gentrification, heritage preservation, neighborhood plan revised, DNA
Mixture of socioeconomic/family status, but higher than Corktown/Beastly
Heritage preservation; traffic; psychiatric discharge rates (Servicedependent ghetto)
Map of the Day
Hamilton in 1876 Week 12 11/10/2011 Week 12 11/10/2011
Political Geography and The Map of the World
Political States Basic division of the world closely related to language and religion
Why does the political map of the World look like this?
How/why does this map change over time?
So what are the geographical aspects of politics?
Nation A group of people sharing a common culture and an attachment to some territory (Is Canada a
nation by this definition?)
State A set of institutions, an area with defined and internationally acknowledged boundaries; a political
NationState A clearly defined cultural group (nation) occupying a defined territory (state)▯ Nation =
culture (language, religion, ethnicity)▯ State= geographical area/ territory
Nationalism The political expression of nationhood reflecting a consciousness of belonging to a
nation▯ Expressed through: flag, national anthem, architecture, holidays etc.
The interplay between international political relations and the territorial context in which they occur
National power, foreign policy, and international relations as influenced by geographic considerations of
location, space, resources and demography
The relevance of space and distance to questions of international relations (P. 311) Week 12 11/10/2011
The study of the importance of space in understanding international relations
What factors underlie the current state of geopolitics?
How can we better understand this and our geopolitical future?
What role does geography play a determinant of geopolitical stability?
Map of the Day
The world in 1893
The left hand side is repeated on the right hand side, 2 Australia
Back to Afghanistan
History of instability in this region (“cradle of conflict”)
In the last 100 years, Afghanistan invaded by:
Britain mid 19 C; late 19 C
Soviet Union 1980’s
United States/ West 2001
Why this long history of conflict and instability?
Located at the “confluence of civilizations” (Persian, Arab, Hindu, Russian)
Heightened potential for ethnic strife, sectarian hatred, and national rivalry
What are the implications of these conflicts (Afghanistan, Balkans, etc.) for the world’s geopolitical stability? Week 12 11/10/2011
The Geography of War and Peace
Conflicts 5 categories
Between states Ie. Vietnam War
Independence movements against foreign domination/occupation; usually a result of decolonization, Ie.
Belgian Congo (19581960)
Secession conflicts Ie. Tibet (19551959)
Civil war (within a state) Ie. Cuba (19561959); Iran (19781979)
Action taken against states that support terrorism Ie. Us led invasion of Afghanistan (2001) and war on Iraq
Conflicts between states have greatest potential to cause global disruption
Principal variables: power/ environment/ culture/ history
2 Views of World Order
End of Cold War End of major wars between States (but still local wars)
Next major conflict Clash of civilizations or cultures (culture becomes dominant factor, not
9 major civilizations/cultures (Fig. 8.1