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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 1HA3
Professor
Michael Mercier
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture outline (September 16, 2013) -Introduction: Geographic literacy (cont’d) Regions - Apart of the earth’s surface that displays internal homogeneity and is relatively distinct (different or heterogeneous) from surrounding areas according to some criteria/criterion -Criteria may be: human geographic or physical geographic or a combination of both Internal homogeneity (uniformity) vs. external heterogeneity (difference) • I.e. Human/Cultural Regions: Coke insideAmerican culture • Physical geographic regions: Climate regions Regionalization: the process where we simplify our complex world and its human and physical geographic patterns and processes into regions Locations on the earth’s surface are assigned/classified into various regions based on criteria/criterion Region Examples: Southern Ontario, Cottage Country, and Northern Ontario Canadian Regions: Prairies,Atlantic Canada, Canadian Shield, HighArctic, Border Regions, Rockies, and West Coast Are the regions of Ontario still meaningful at this spatial scale? They are not significant at a social scale Landscapes Regions are often defined/identifies by their landscapes Landscapes: the visible features of the land/area -Can be natural/physical and or human/cultural -E.g. Prairie turned from a physical landscape into a cultural landscape because of humans tampering with it and causing crops to grow accordingly Cultural Landscape: The outcome of interactions between people and their environments; the visible human imprint on the land -Each cultural group imprints itself on the landscape in different ways -Many cultures=many distinct cultural landscapes Consider: southern Ontario -Rural areasCutting down the trees etc -Urban areashighways, suburbs etc *Examples or evidence of how we have modified our natural environment BUT is different from rural residence onAfrica or in Ireland have modified their landscape Diffusion Diffusion: the movement/ spread of geographic phenomena across space and over time -E.g. The iphone phenomena, and how quick it spreads over the earth, diseases etc. Two main forms of diffusion -Relocation -Expansion Relocation Diffusion: the spread of ideas, cultural characteristics, etc. From one area to another via the physical movements of people -E.g. immigrants -Consider Hamilton: -Surnames of residents in downtown Hamilton neighborhoods: • British (Jones, Smith) • Italian (Mancini) • Portuguese • Vietnamese -Not only do the people change, but the landscape changes (churches, stores etc. change because as one immigrant moves out and the other comes in they change it with them) Expansion Diffusion: the spread of innovation within a single area in a snowballing process -2 main subtypes 1. Hierarchal: ideas or innovations leapfrog from one important person to another, or from one city to another temporarily bypassing other people or rural areas in between (leapfrogs over small towns, and hits big towns) 2. Contagious: the rapid and widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population (Disease, gossip) *The iPod diffusion Perception and Mental Mapping • Much of our engagement with real physical or human environments actually occurs through a personal lens • -Our experiences with these real environments are actually determined by how we perceive them to be, rather than by how they actually are • Mental Maps: a unique personal representation of reality • Mental maps are unique to individuals • Imperfect knowledge: people have only imperfect knowledge *Our perception of reality is what matters, not reality Key Geographical concepts=Geographic literacy Read page 64-72 Lecture Outline (September 17, 2013) Maps ­ Maps are two dimensional graphical representation of the world, and depict spatial relationships ­ Maps: Communicate information ­ Maps: tools in the analysis of spatial information ­ Maps: ‘socially constructed’ ­  They reflect the power of the people that draw them ­ Argentinean map depicting falsehood and lying that they own territories they do not own and make false maps ­ Read maps with a critical eye ­ ‘Lies, damn lies, and statistics’ just because they say this is what the data shows, it just means it is the conclusion that they want ­ How to lie with maps (M. Monmonier, 1996) ­  Small scale maps (takes out things that aren’t considered important) ­ Lines (simplify what is actually happening) ­ Area features ­ White lies vs. Big lies ­ Critical eye Spatial Problems - Solving spatial problems: e.g. pictographs ­ Solving spatial problems: e.g. navigational map ­ Key to human survival ­ Pacific islanders (The Marshall Islands) ­ Maps reflect current knowledge ­ Maps reflect fears and angst among populations ­ Maps as art ­ * Ferocious and cannibalistic natives, creatures of deep seas example (fear and anxiety) ­ Maps are statements of power and authority (i.e. British Empire: “the sun never sets on the Empire”)Represents global power and global authority and how powerful they were at the time Key Considerations for Maps ­ Maps are like other forms of visual representation of data (e.g. figures, tables, etc.) ­ Key considerations in the production and understanding (interpretation) of maps 1. ScaleWhat is the size of the spatial area on the map; indicates the spatial relationship between real world locations, distances and areas and their representation on the map ­ All maps are scaled representations of the real world ­ Scale is typically expressed as a ratio (e.g. 1:50,000) or a representative fraction (1/50,000) ­ ‘Large scale’vs. ‘Small scale’ ­ 1/50,000 is a pretty small number (0.00002) ­ 1/250,000 is an even smaller number (0.000004) ­ Therefore a map at 1/250,000 scale is smaller than one at 1/50,000 ­ However this 1/250,000 scale map actually portrays a much larger area LARGE AREA=SMALL SCALE ­ Small scale maps show large areas, and generally depict very little detail ­ Large scale maps show smaller area, and generally have greater levels of detail 2. PerspectiveHow is this map oriented;Are there any tools to allow me orient myself on the map? ­ Compass rose or a north arrow ­ Typically we orient north at the top of our maps ­ Antipocentric map, upside down map? (Australian map) ­ Maps help us look at the world from different perspectives ­ There is no correct map perspective (just differences) 3. Projection How maps are projected (The challenge of earth as 3 dimensional, maps as 2 dimensional) ­ Imagine peeling an orange in one piece ­ The peel becomes you map ­ While possible to do it is not always convenient ­ Online module * 4. Type What kind of map is it ­ In the description and explanation geographers often use maps ­ Different kinds of spatial data, and different maps demand different types of maps ­ Maps serve two primary services *** ­ a.Accurate types of maps ­ b. Dot maps reveal patterns of spatial concentration clustering or dispersion i.e. cholera map  people that got the water from the well ­ c. Choropleth mapsindicate graduated variations in data ­ d. Isopleth maps connect locations of equal data value ­ e. Cartogramsspace is distorted to emphasize particular attributes (presidential election) Key Issues ­ Maps are social constructions ­ Key considerations in reading and producing maps (scale, perspective, projection, and map type) ­ Different types of maps are used for different types of spatial problems ­ Start taking a look at Chapter 5 Lecture September 23 Population • Current population • 7.1 billion, increasing approx.75 million a year • Some questions: • Where do 7.1 billion people live? • What factors underlie this distribution? • What are the implications and consequences of this distribution? Population Geography The study of population: Demography ­ Demos ­ Graphe Population Geographyinterested in spatial components of demography Of concern to population geographers: ­ Growth or decline of population over time ­ Spatial differential growth or decline of population ­ The causes and consequences of population change i.e. population limiting government policy ­ Spatial distribution of population and the consequences with respect to global resources i.e. lack of resources in developing countries History of Population Growth How have global population levels changed over the past 12,000 years (the Holocene period)? ­ 12,000 years BP (4 million) ­ 2,000 years BP (250 million) ­ 1650 AD (~350 BP) (500 million) ­ 1800 AD (~200 BP) ­ c. 12,000 years2 billion ­ < 50 years2 billion ­ C.25 years 2 billion History of population growth II What factors have contributes to these population increases/ decreases? ­ Significant population changes associated with: ­ 1. The first agricultural revolution (12,000 years ago)- Mesopotamia (spread to Egypt, China, and Mesoamerica) ­ Keys: increased food production- food surplus (grow what you want when you want) ­ Increased labor specialization ­ All of this requires permanent settlement ­ Population growth ­ Significant population changes associated with: ­ 2. Industrial revolution (18 and 19 century- Britain then rest of Europe) ­ Keys ­ Increasing food production ­ Increased standard of living ­ Declining death rates (prior to changes in birth rates) ­ Note: industrialization today ­ Population checks-the plague “two steps forward, one step backwards” Distribution: World population distribution Asia vs. all other areas Density: The spatial scale used to affect the density ­ Consider Canada ­ Canada Population density Physical Factors ­ Some areas are more suitable for human habitation than others ­ I.e. desert and polar regions In general ­ Temperature ­ Water availability ­ Physiography ­ Soil equality ­ Connected to food and growth Population Distribution and Density ­ Physical geographic conditions do not solely explain the global distribution of population ­ Cultural and Economic factors ­ Arena of long (ancient) history of settlement: nucles of ancient civilization Lecture September 24 (Chapter 5) ­ Globally P1=P0+(B-D) ­ P1=Global population today ­ P0=Global population last year ­ B=Births that occurred last year ­ D=Deaths that occurred last year Fertility: measures  1. CBR=(B/P) x1000 (Birth divided by population) ­ True fertility needs to account for ­ A) The number of women in the population ­ B) The number of women of child-bearing age (i.e. 15-49) ­ 2. General Fertility Rate or Fecundity) (GFR): ­ GFR=(B/Pf-15-49) x1000 ­ 3. TFR measures the average number of children a woman will have over the course of her reproductive years ­ 2.6 (total global fertility rate) ­ Replacement rateHow many children a woman needs to have to replace herself and her partner (2.1-2.5) ­ For our population to replace ourselves we must have this number ­ We are at 2.6 so we are over Fertility Variations: Developed vs. Developing ­ Economic development and levels of fertility ­ 1.6 in richer parts of the world ­ 2.8 in poorer parts of the world ­ Fertility rates are influenced by many things ­ Biological: ­ 1. Age ­ 2. Nutritional well-being ­ Economic ­ 3. Economic Development ­ Cultural ­ 4. MarriageSocial desires (Panama has lowered the legal age to encourage earlier marriage) ­ 5. Contraceptive Use (incl. abortion) Mortality Measures ­ 1. Crude death rate (CDR) CDR=(D/P) x 1000 ­ Age of the population? ­ Infant Mortality Rate (an age adjusted rate (IMR): IMR=(D0-1/B) X1000 ­ You can do an age adjusted mortality rate ­ You just need to know how many infants there were and how many births there were ­ This measures the health of the population ­ Life expectancy: The average number of years of life Variations in Mortality and Life expectancy ­ Patterns of CDR and LE are almost mirror images of each other ­ Variability of CDR and LE reflects variations in: ­ 1. Access to health care services ­ 2. General economic circumstances ­ 3. Food supply ­ 4. General environmental conditions i.e. sanitation ­ Social inequality of health (death) Population Migration ­ The spatial movement of population from one place to another ­ P1=P0=(B-D)+ (I-E) ­ Key issues of interest ­ Social and cultural process -Immigrants and cultural transfer - Why do people migrate? One theory: “Push-Pull Factors” 3 Main types 1. Economic (Employment, wages, standard of living) 2. Political (Religious and political persecution) 3. Environmental (Drought, Famine) *The perception of the pull factor draws people in (American Dream) Types of Migration ­ Forced (Slavery) ­ Impelled (Movement where choice is limited) Civil war ­ Free (e.g. 19 century Europeans in search of a better life elsewhere- 70 million in the th 19 century alone) -Benefits? Reduced some of the pop. Pressure that Europe had at the time ­ Limitations today: immigration laws prevent free migration and it results in… ­ Illegal migration e.g. Mexico, U.S border September 30 2013h Theories of population growth ­ Malthus ­ Fertility transition Population policy Population structures etc. on slide Malthus ­ Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) ­ An Essay on the Principle of Population 1798 ­ He saw the population explosion since 1 Billion in the 1800 ­ He was afraid about what was going to occur ­ 1. Food supply increase Linear (Over time we can slowly increase food supply) ­ 2. Population increase Exponential (Will surpass food supply) ­ Time Periods: ­ 1. Food> Population ­ 2. Food = Population (1800’s) ­ 3. Food 50% (increasing use of contraceptives) ­ 85% is modern contraceptives ­ More appropriate methods ­ Public education Large family was deemed necessary for people’s survival Believed some would die off No social safety net - Importance of large families is beginning to diminish Social Status of women ­ Education Cultural transition - Encourages lower fertility *All this represents a cultural transition Government ­ Have the ability to alter population in three ways ­ 1. Fertility ­ 2. Mortality ­ 3. Migration ­ a. Increasing/ decreasing births via natal policy -Pro natal Baby bonus -Anti natal one child policy, sterilization in India b. Decreasing or increasing deaths via health care etc. c. Encouraging/ discouraging migration via immigration laws (also prevention from leaving i.e. North Korea, Cuba) Population Structure *You need to take account what the population looks like when measuring population Population pyramid: a diagrammatic representation of the age and sex structure of a population Expanding populations ­ Fertility rate is high, mortality rate is high ­ Each generation is larger than the one before it ­ More pre- reproductive, than reproductive etc. ­ Population is expanding Diminishing Population ­ More grandparents than parents, more parents than children ­ Canada ­ Aging population ­ When the base of the pyramid gets tighter, the top of the pyramid gets wider and taller because people can live longer Population Aging: the process where the proportion of elderly people increased and the proportion of young people decreases ­ We can calculate a point where 50% is above and 50% is below ­ Median age of the population ­ Global population >65 years -1900: 1% - 2011: 8% -2050:20% - Spatial variation Population Issues:Aging Key factors in explaining it 1. Declining Fertility Base of the pyramid narrows 2. Declining Mortality People don’t die as young, so the people stretches upwards Spatial Variations: ­ Fertility ­ More developed world vs. less developed world Life Expectancy: ­ Sanitation, better nutrition, economic development, health care resources ­ Dramatic increases of life expectancy ­ Drawback AIDS in Sub SaharanAfrica Consequences of population aging ­ Agreater proportion of dependants (more elderly, plus youth = higher dependency rate) ­ Our generation Lots of people to support i.e. Baby boom ­ Greater need for health care ­ Greater stress on social services (i.e. retirement benefits) Lecture: October 1 2013t Geographies of Health and Healthcare -We all have different health status The risks from environmental contamination are not uniform across space - Where you live affects your risk of disease or ill health Access to basic resources is spatially differentiated - Where you live affects your access to these resources The provision of health care varies from one location on earth to another Where you live affects the treatments you get Traditional ‘Medical’Geography -Spatial context of disease Today ‘Health’Geography -Spatial context of health and well-being What’s the difference? -Traditionally: health=the absence of disease (WHO) -More recently: health=the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being (WHO revised) 4 D’s of Health Geography -Distribution: Spatial patterns of health, disease etc. For example a map showing the greatest risk of getting malaria, or death rates from heart disease in UK, changing distribution of obesity in US - Diffusion: Spread of disease over space i.e. rise of avian flu map, it began in a certain area but diffused into other areas, diffusion of cholera in NorthAmerica - Determinants: factors affecting health status i.e. income/wealth, behavioral factors, social environment, physical environment, genetics, etc. (self rated health status by income class in Canada) Low income category is a lower percentage than with people w/ a higher income, very few wealthy people say their health status is poor - Delivery: provision of health-care services i.e. public vs. private vs. traditional, quality of care vs. cost of care high tech diagnostics vs. low tech prevention *US health care is the most expensive in the whole world Concepts Epidemic: temporary but widespread (spatially) outbreak of a disease Pandemic: an epidemic of greater scale and proportion Epidemiology: study of incidence, transmission and control of diseases Epidemiological Transition: a theory of changing prevalence of infectious and degenerative diseases -TwoAges: 1. Age of pestilence and famine 2. Age of degenerative diseases (we are currently in this age) - Four or 5 stages The number of people that die from particular kinds of causes of death In the past infectious diseases killed people i.e. cholera, flu, typhus Degenerative diseases i.e. heart disease, diabetes People didn’t live long enough to get degenerative diseases in the past Infectious diseases are controlled now; degenerative diseases are what kill people ­ Stage 1 and 2 are part of the pestilence and famine (look at graph) ­ Stage 3 and 4 are part of the age of degenerative diseases ­ Stage 5 (not indicated) is hypothetical, it speculates that we are due for a change and they expect infectious diseases to come back i.e. drug resistant bacteria (they become resistant to drugs and will morph and will become a major player in mortality picture) th October 7 2013 Consider your own life routine: Wake up, go to school, return home ­ In what ways are these part of our culture? ­ What do you wear? Eat?Aspects of everyday life? These cultural aspects are based on: religious beliefs, language spoken, ethnic/ancestral origin, age, gender, and individual personality Dominance elements of popular culture in our culture in our society Consider: ­ Would someone from a different ethnic culture be familiar to your social norms and expression of culture? ­ Would you be in culture shock about them? Culture: ­ The way of life of the members of society, they way of life▯ including what they wear, what they eat ­ Culture and practices varies over geographical space ­ Is their a distinct Canadian culture ­ Or do we share culture with others ­ Canadian vs. American culture ­ Shared cultural traits ­ Unique different traits at the same time i.e. our beaver and the eagle symbol Culture: ­ The emergence and history of culture: civilization ­ Subculture: example teenagers ­ Cultural Geographers: Spatial distribution of cultural activities their health areas and the process of diffusion across space o I.e. Jeans where they developed, where do people wear them, where they originated from Material or Non-Material forms of culture Material: artifactsall the tangible elements related to how people live their lives for example clothes you wear, homes you live in Non-Material: a) Mentifacts: Key attidutial elements/values i.e. languages the ability to communicate b) Sociofacts: Norms involved in group formation Cultural Region:An area with a degree of homogeneity in cultural characteristics -Spatial scale matters: size of cultural regions varies Regionalization: varies from one region to the next Cultural Landscape: the outcome of interactions between people (societies) and their environments, the visible human imprint on land ­ It reflects human modifications of land i.e. rural and urban ­ Cultural regions and cultural landscapes are inter related ­ There are many cultural landscapes CulturalAdaptations: The adaption/ adjustment by people and cultures to the challenges posed by the physical environment ­ Evolution and adaption of each culture ­ Via cultural adaption: each culture is different ­ Cultural adaptation is not a static process o Culture is constantly changing/adapting it needs to adapt to a new reality and how we deal with things o Example: texting while having a conversation Oct. 8 2013 th Oct. 15 2013: Human Geographies: Society and Culture Chapter 7 276-288 Religion: set of beliefs (and associated activities) that facilitates an appreciation and understanding of our place in the world and acts to unify all those that believe into a single community ­ Helps to bring particular groups together that have a similar set of beliefs ­ Religion is one of the key ways to differentiate different cultural groups ­ One of the fundamental ways that groups distinguish themselves from one another ­ Universality: Serve a basic/cultural needbasic need of having religion ­ Religious laws/beliefs govern: diet, dress, roles of men/women, laws, education, lifestyles, etc. e.g. consider Ontario (week, weekend structure) this cycle is different for different religious groups ­ Influence human cultural behavior and interaction ­ ‘ways of life’culture and religion In terms of numbers of adherents (followers/believers) which religion is the largest worldwide? ­ Christianity: 1/3 of the global populationRoman Catholic ­ Islam: 1/5 of the global population ­ Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism etc ­ What about in Canada, which is the largest? ­ Christianity: between ½ and 2/3 of the Canadian population ­ Some people claim to be ‘non-religious’what percent of the population do you think this is? ­ World: 16% ­ Canada: 24% Differential spatial distributions: some religions are spatially widespread while others are more spatially concentrated Spatial Diffusion: Migrants bring their religion with them to their new home ­ Migrants typically retain their religion ­ Language begins to leave your suitcase, you adopt a new language ­ Generation after generation religion is integral to peoples identity ­ Recall: Diffusion- Spread of phenomena over space ­ Recall: CulturalAdaptation process which results in changes to the creation of new religions Migration and Diffusion I.E. Christianity - Origins Middle East (c. 2000 years ago) - 3 Branches developed via cultural adaptation - Diffusion via colonialism How is religion expressed on the global landscape? Diffusion of Christianity and Islam How is religion expressed on the global landscape? How does the previous map hide the global religious plurality? Canada for example: Christian majority but some diversity ­ 56.6 are Christian ­ There are scatterings of other types of groupings ­ This majority of Christianity is changing over time st ­ Christianity has declines over time to just a little over half in the early half of the 21 century ­ No religion is increasing as well How is religion expressed on the global landscape? -Far right represents the total number of people that are part of this group - Europe has high Christianity, Oceania etc. -Africa is divided between Islam and Christianity - What about agnostics etc. No Religion secularism: Approximately 16% of the world’s population and 24% of Canadians claim to have no religion Heterogeneity Atheism: the disbelief in the existence of deities (gods) Agnosticism: the view of the existence of deities (gods) in unknown or unknowable Irreligion: the absence of or indifference towards religion Shades of Gray: Practicing vs. Non practicing The declining importance of religion and secularism Secularism: the separation of government and social/cultural ways of life from religious institutions ­ Variations in secularity ­ Development, urbanity, diversity etc. Universalizing and Ethnic Religions Spatial dimensions Universalizing religion: attempts to have global influence and to appeal to people in all areas of the world ­ Actively seek new converts Ethnic Religion: appeals to a particular group of people usually living in one religion of the world ­ Usually do not care if people convert or not ­ Ethnic religions i.e. Hinduism and Judaism ­ Hinduism: cultural hearth in northern India and then spread throughout India ­ -Marginal diffusion ­ Polytheistic-worships more than one God ­ Judaism: cultural hearth in the middle east and the spread throughout Europe and elsewhere ­ Homeland (Israel) and conflict ­ Universalizing religions Buddhism Christianity and Islam ­ Buddhism: an offshoot of Hinduism which slowly spread east from India and now more associated with China (Tibet) Korea and Mongolia ­ Christianity: an offshoot of Judaism that spread quickly though the Mediterranean region though efforts of missionaries ­ -Colonialism and diffusion ­ Islam: cultural hearth in the middle east, but with distinctlyArabic characteristics Islam diffuses through political and military expansion ­ North Africa middle east and Indonesia Religion remains one of the most obvious ways that the world is divided Why? Because it is central to how people identify themselves For many ones own religion is the only acceptable religion -Geo political conflicts and religion i.e. the crusaders, Ireland, Palestine, Pakistan, Indonesia, current global tension etc. -Religious values: “tolerance” “peace” and “goodwill to others” Religious Landscape: Other than at the global scale, in what other ways is religions expressed on the landscape? ­ The use of geographic space for symbolic religious purposes/ activities ­ - Shrines ­ - Sacred Buildings ­ Buildings ­ Cemeteries ­ Sacred Place: Specific physical and human environments with sacred meaning ­ Contested? Jerusalem, Christianity Muslim etc ­ Hindus and Ganges river ­ Jews and wailing wall ­ Roman Catholics and Lourdes ­ Muslims in Mecca Cultural and religious beliefs: each religion has its own beliefs and attitudes; what is important to one, can be inconsequential to another I.e. sacred animals The relationship between humanity and nature: Hierarchal relationship between God humans and nature -Non-hierarchal -Other cultural groups have holistic views= we are all equal Read Chapter 8 October 21: The Geographies of Race and Ethnicity • Citizenship: nationality • Identity: ethnicity or (ethnic group) Ethnicity: an affiliation with a group whose racial, cultural, religious, linguistic characteristics, or national origins distinguish it from the rest of the population Ethnic Group: a group whose members perceive themselves as different from others because of a common ancestry and/or shared culture -Examples:African,Asian, European (Broad scale), Chinese, Indian, Italian, Irish, Somali Nigerian (Micro Scale) - Linked to our ancestors and to specific cultural traditions (languages they speak, food they eat etc.) -Minority Status (British majority in Canada, this is becoming less so and changed a lot over the last 50 years. They need not be minority groups) i.e. Chinese Canadians Ethnicity and ethnic groups is inherently spatial -We can see the spatial manifestation of ethnicity and ethnic groups in many ways - I.e. walking through neighborhoods (Cork town is traditionally Irish) Shamrock park in Cork town**** ­Different spatial distributions for different spatial groups • Ethnicity: individual and group identity  • Ethnicity, religion and language: mechanism through which culture is expressed  ­I.e. the cultural landscape ­I.e. the built landscape  Pride ▯ Italian soccer team does well, flags etc.  Pride vs. discrimination and conflict ▯ 2 or more ethnic groups conflicting etc. • Globalization: erasing local diversity (language, religion, etc.) Ethnicity is immutable: You cannot lose your ethnicity or your connection to your ancestral past Ethnicity is dilutable: Your dad is Portuguese and your mom is French, their parents can dilute  ethnicity as well  Canadian Census recognizes the multidimensionality of ethnicity  They use: Origin or Ancestry: the ‘roots’ or ethnic ‘background’ of an individual via their familial history  ­Issues: how far back in time? ­Issues: What about mixed origins? Single or multiple origins  ­Issues: What about the role of public opinion  Another example of how Canadian census deals with the multidimensionality of ethnicity  Race: based on genetically imparted physiognomic features (mostly facial features) of an  individual (i.e. skin color etc.) ­Issues: significance of race as a social construct  ­Issues: ambiguity of te
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