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GEO-1HB3-CHAP 8.docx

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McMaster University
Michael Mercier

CHAPTER 8 URBANIZATION: EMERGENCE OF URBAN LIVING • Greater and greater proportions of the global population are living in urban areas each year- we are at a point where cities are growing every year globally there is an increase in the global population. Roughly over 50% of the global community lives in urban cities, 200 years ago it was less than 10%. Here are spatial variations in Canada well over 80% live in cities. Until recently China was under 30% and now they are the most rapidly urbanizing. Over time the population has changed as well  Change over time: spatial dimension  Change over space: spatial variation • Urban places can be thought of as;  Centres of large and densely concentrated populations- not dispersed like in the country  Centres of technological change and innovation-advances in communication tech, industrial production, information tech.  Centres of concentrations of power and economic activity-political power and political capitals are always cities where it‟s concentrated. Economic power is in city such as financial trade organization, headquarters, stock market  Centres of cultural change- schools  Places which reflect social, economic & political diversity- cities weren‟t always diverse but now there is cultural diversity, there is economic activity such as retail, industrial, rich and poor • Concentration of power The growth of cities: a brief history • Early development- the fertile • Crescent. The most western part is Egypt. The • Eastern end is the Modern day Iraq. In the center • Is Mesopotamia (the land between 2 rivers) • The 2 rivers were essential for the growth of • The civilization • Reasons for city formation:  Surplus Theory: • Agricultural surplus- 55 hundred years ago there was the first city emergence- humans used to follow the migration of animals, we were nomadic. 12000 years ago there were key discoveries such as domesticate animals that can reproduce for consumption, do work for u, domesticate plants so we can grow them where we want, develop tools such as plow, being able to bring water to the land such as irrigation. The plains between the 2 rivers were key because they let us irrigate the land. Surplus means that you can have food for you and your family as well as have food left over. Before we only hunted what we needed. Now people can trade and exchange the extra food to get things • Social stratification-differentiation in society and trading • Labor specialization- some people work on farms and produce food but other people make tools, pottery, millers, and butchers. They dedicate their time to be good at what they do  Rural to urban migration - & principle of agglomeration  People moving from country side to the city • Social/cultural and economic transformation- there was education, currency, education • Profoundly different forms of settlements- migratory people that had temporary places moved to cities, well we would call them little towns basically.  New forms of economic activity- basic forms of industrial activities, trade and bartering, there is services such as millers and butchers  New forms of social organization- social hierarchy  New social institutions- the church and educational services CHAPTER 8  People relied on others for their survival- this is key. For the first time we rely on others. Ex. I make tools I cant eat tools so I hope to exchange with someone else to get food  Sedentary vs. nomadic- w e have permanent settlements • Cities between Mesopotamia & the Industrial Revolution- 55 hundred years ago up till 200 years ago- cities • Didn‟t change all that much from Mesopotamia to now.  Small, compact  Trade, education, religion, administration- centers of  Education and religion, military and government administration.  People came to exchange goods • Level of Urbanization-by 1800 the urbanization level was pretty low • But more than prior to Mesopotamia • Late 1700s & 1800s: Industrial Revolution • Critical changes to „way of life‟  Agricultural productivity- agricultural surplus was still  Critical for the urban revolution. New agricultural practices, seed technology,  Machinery  Mass production- factories  Trade- not really local trade but more global trade. Ex. Stuff from  England to small Canadian towns  Demographic change- population explosion  Rural to urban migration • Level of Urbanization: now we can do all the work on our own on the farm • And so the kids no longer are needed on the farm so they go to the • City where they moved to get jobs in the factories. This was rural • Or urban migration. People are living longer and in the 19 century • We go from 10% to almost 50% • Emergence of first truly large cities  & their associated problems- cant build living places fast enough so slums develop. Lots of people means there is more waste. The factories have  Pollution. How do we let people live by these factories? • Second profound social/cultural and economic transformation  Proportion of population living in cities  Proportion of population working in agriculture and industry- larger population working in factories  Size of „urban‟ places- form small towns and cities in the 1800‟s to very large in only 100 years  Homogeneous & heterogeneous societies- who lives in cities usually had the same ethnicity language etc. but then it became heterogeneous because we have people with different believes and cultures • 1900–2000: Emergence of more developed cities-Phase 1 the cities become more large  Urban „conurbations‟: ex. The GTA- we have multiple municipalities and cities that merge together to be on big city. We work as a whole. • 1950-2000: Emergence of less developed cities- places like south polo is one of the world‟s largest cities. It wasn‟t that large before. They are currently going through problems that developed cities already went through in the 19 century. They are going through this at a larger scale, they are developing • Cities in a lesser-developed place. CHAPTER 8  Mega-cities & problems Urban living defines most of our lives – most of us live in cities (of varying size)  A relatively recent phenomena  A fundamental social/cultural and economic transformation CITY AND URBANIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS & GLOBAL VAIRATIONS • Greater and greater proportions of the global population are living in urban areas each year- the rate of urbanization is continuing to increase and globally its over 50% • Variations- some regions of the world it is 80% and other areas is about only 30% they are much more rural • This process of urbanization is relatively recent • 10% to 50% in 200 years- there is a big change is a short period of time • Urbanization- is fundamentally connected to economic and social/ cultural change ( including industrialization) most industrialization happens In globular areas which is why it Is in more urbanized areas. Today we see dramatic urbanization in areas going through economic development today. Definitions Urban Area: urban is the most general term used to describe places of clustered settlement.  Demographic criteria- we use certain criteria for demographic to determine whether it is urban or not. It has to have a greater threshold to consider urban. In Canada this threshold is 1000. not only the population but the density. 400 per square km here in Canada is the criteria. The number varies per country. UN uses 5000. Iceland is 200. Japan 7500. USA is 2500.  Economic criteria- the number of population involved in jobs we think of in urban places such as retail, factory opposed to farming or fishing etc. we need to know X amount of people take part in this • Do “urban” and “city” mean the same thing?  Consider: Canada is 80% urban: does that mean that 80% of us live in cities?  Urban: a general term that includes things like cities- because a city has excess of 100 people and a lot of villages and towns fit in this criteria. It includes all kinds of clustered settlements  City: specific term- a place of a certain size and it fulfils certain function and political status. In part it is a political choice because of taxation and also certain places like the name because of appeal • Village, Town & City: • A nucleated settlement- clustered settlement  Distinct residential and non-residential areas- areas where people live, go to work, commercial economic activates  Central Business District (CBD)- usually there is a downtown or a main street. Main street you think more village or town • Suburb: a specialized and peripheral area of a nucleated settlement. Its usually the peripheral of a city sometimes a large town. • Neighbouring urban areas- they are interconnected and dependent • Residential, industrial, commercial specializations are the different types of suburbs. Residential is the ones with the homes the typical. Industrial are the ones near airports CHAPTER 8 • Metropolitan Area:  An agglomeration (cluster) of discontinuously built-up urban areas acting as an integrated economic unit  Ex. GTA or GTAH- the greater Toronto area plus Hamilton- cluster together 2 or more urban areas and generally different municipalities. They work here but they shop there. They are dependent. • Canada:  Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs): Toronto Hamilton, Vancouver, Winnipeg, Ottawa, Calgary • One or more adjacent urban areas/municipalities • Total population >100 000 • Population of „urban core‟>50 000  Census Agglomerations (CAs):  Same a CMA but the urban core population > 10000 but not greater than 50 000 ex. Bellville or Guelph.  Canadian CMAs or CAS (urban areas): 81% or Canadians live in 1 of these 2 types of urban areas  Largest CMAs (cities): >50% between 50 and 60% of the Canadian population that live in cities real cities • Urban vs. City (>80%) vs. city (~50 and 60%) • • Urbanization: transformation of population from rural to urban status: the process of city formation and expansion • Re organization of human society • The key differentiation is that there is an increasing proportion of the population living in cities- as we go from 1 time period to another the perecent of the population that is urban goes up • Urban Growth: possible to have this increasing and urbanization is not increasing. And increase n the number of people living in cities. • Here in scenario 1 the population and the urban has increased in scenario 2 • The population has increased but urbanization has remained the same • ** DEFFINE THE 2 AND FILL IN THE TABLE AND PROVIDE A SCENARIO** on exam • The number of immigrants and the people there the rates haven't change Variations in urbanization • In terms of percent urban:  Prior to Industrial Revolution: ~10% (in MDW)- late 1700- mostly countries of the more developed world today. This is the level of urbanization  1900: ~50% in much of the MDW  2007:  World 50% urbanized  More developed world: 77% urbanized  Less developed world: 41% CHAPTER 8 • In terms of the rate of urban population growth: the less developed world is rapidly urbanizing in the developed world its changing very slowly it changed less that 1% in the last 25 years but the less developed moved more than 3 ½ percent  1975-2000: • More Developed World:0. 83% • Less Developed World: 3.50% Urban population (as percent of population) • More Developed World: highly urbanized • Less Developed regions: less urbanized • Consider Latin/South America- the odd one out.- its less developed Urban population growth rates • Urban growth rates: more developed countries • Urban growth rates: highest in less developed countries • Ex. Africa, south Asia such as china Pervasive urban issues: city size • Megacities:  Less Developed World • E.g. Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta (India) Dhaka (Bangladesh), Karachi (Pakistan), Jakarta (Indonesia), Lagos (Nigeria), Cairo (Egypt), Sao Paulo (brazil), Mexico City etc. • Growth: similar to urbanization more generally:  Economic attraction- there are more opportunity in the large city  Expanding population  Rural urban migration  Natural increase  Spatial and economic variations exist in the levels of urbanization as well as the projected growth of cities • While the more developed world is also the more urbanized world- the developing world is also the urbanizing world • Large and very large (mega) cities • More Developed World:
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