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GEOG 1HB3 Review.docx

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McMaster University
Jeff Landry

Chapter 1: Behaviouralists Desired to provide general explanations and to develop laws and theories such as explaining how much and adjust to hazards or the reasons for certain land use patterns in urban and agricultural areas Absolute Location The identification of place by some precise and accepted system or coordinates; it therefore is sometimes called mathematical location Relative location The position of a place in relation to that or other places or activities. Expressed spatial interconnection and interdependence and may carry social implications Site An absolute location concept, refers to the physical and characteristics and attributes of the place itself Situation Refers to the external relations of a locale and provides insight into the importance of a place Absolute direction Based on the cardinal points of the north, south, east, and west. Appear uniformly in all cultures, derived from the obvious ‘givens’ of nature (rising and setting of sun from east to west) Absolute distance Refers to spatial separation between two points on the earth’s surface measured by some accepted standard unit such as miles or kilometers for widely separated locales, feet or meters for more closely spaced points Relative distance Transforms those linear measurements into other units more meaningful for the space relationship question Spatial interactions Accessibility, connectivity Spatial diffusion The process of dispersion of an idea or an item from a center of origin to more distant points with which it is directly or indirectly connected Globalization Implies the increasing interconnection of people and societies in all parts of the world as the full range of social, cultural, political, economic, and environmental processes becomes international in scale and effect Spatial distribution The arrangements of items on the earth’s surface Density The measure of the number or quantity of anything within a defined unit of area Dispersion (or opposite Is a statement of the amount of spread of a phenomenon over an concentration) area. Tells us how far things are spread out Clustered Close together spatially Dispersed/Scattered Spread out Pattern The geometric arrangement of objects in space Regions Earth areas that display significant elements of internal uniformity and internal difference from surrounding territories Places Unlike and like other places, creating patterns of areal differences and of coherent spatial similarity Formal region Region of essential uniformity in one or a limited combination of physical or cultural features Functional/Nodal region May be visualized as a spatial system. Its parts are interdependent, and throughout its extent the functional region operates as a dynamic, organizational unit Perceptual region Less rigorously structured than the formal and functional. They reflect feelings and images rather than objective data and because of that may be more meaningful in the lives and actions of those who recognize them than are the more abstract region of geographers Chapter 2: Inductive research Looks at particular facts or events and sees if they can be the basis of formulating a general rule or principle Deductive research Follows the scientific method Purposes of geographic Description, explanation, forecasting and prediction, assessment, research prescription Primary data Collected by the researcher or a member of the research team specifically for the research project or program Secondary data Collected by somebody else or another organization Quantitative Test and verify hypothesis Qualitative Perceptual Map 2-D spatial representation of any part of our world Projection Simply a system for displaying the curved surface of the earth on a flat sheet of paper Orthographic projection Results from placement of the light source at infinity Gnomic projection Type of planar projection, and is produced when the light source is at the center of the earth Stereographic projection When the light is placed at the point exactly opposite the point of contact between the globe and map Scale Relationship between size or length of a feature on the map and the same item on the earth’s surface Latitude Measures distance north and south of the equator and parallel of latitude run due east-west Longitude The angular distance east or west of the prime meridian and is depicted by north-south lines called meridians, which converge at the poles Chapter 3: Globalization Used to refer to everyone’s way of being and living in the global village 1) Loosening of controls of the movement of international capital 2) Reduction of trade barriers and tariffs on goods and services between nations 3) Rise of transnational corporations 4) Improvements in technology and transportation 5) Internationalization of popular culture Semi-periphery region One that is less reliant on the core region than the periphery region and has attracted considerable investment from the core Neo-liberal economic Ex. Eliminating subsidies, investment in education, health care, policies infrastructure, trade liberation Spatial interactions Movement of people, ideas, and commodities within and between areas Complementarity Refers to the supply and demand relationship between places Transferability Acceptable costs of an exchange. An expression of the mobility of a commodity and is a function of three conditions: 1) Characteristics and value of products 2)
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