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geog 1hb3 notes.docx

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Walter Peace

Geography Notes Defining geography: • Combination of geo (Earth) and graphy (to write) • Geography explains “what’s where, why there, and why care” Space: amount of Earth’s surface that something covers • Absolute space: real, tangible, with defined, definite boundaries o Eg. Mississauga • Relative space: open to personal interpretation and/or change over time o Eg. Size of neighbourhood Location: particular position in space • Again, there are absolute and relative locations • Nominal locations have names associated with them o Eg. Springvale, Megaton Place: a location with significance • Sense of place: the unique feeling associated with a place o Eg. Las Vegas: “sin city” • Placelessness: a lack of feeling associated with a place o Eg.Another god-damn WalMart Distance: amount of space between two locations • Includes: o Absolute/physical distance o Travel time distance o Economic/communicational distance o Psychological distance Distribution: how locations are arranged relatve to one another • There are three main forms discussed: o Density: how close things are located to one another  Measured as a ratio of things to area of land o Concentration: explains not only how close to one another things are located, but also where the groups are o Pattern: are the things just located randomly, or is there some order to how they are arranged?  Eg. Linear pattern, radial, etc. Site: something’s absolute location Situation: things it is located close to Distance Decay: growing decrease in interaction between things as the distance between them increases Distance Decay Function: I =ij * ((P *iP) /jD ) ij  I is the amount of interaction between two places, i & j; ij  K is a constant;  Pi& P jre the population sizes of places i & j respectively;  D ij the distance between i and j; and  x is the distance decay function (i.e. the rate at which interactions decline with distance)  Unless told otherwise, assume K = 1 and x = 2 Blah blah blah… Without further ado…Here’s Cities and Urbanization Change in urban living: over 200 years, the percentage of the world’s population that livws in cities has changed from 10% to 50%, and the amount of the Earth’s land covered by cities has increased from >30% to <80% Currently, 80% of the world’s population lives in an urban environemtn The first cities were founded in ancient Babylonia, Israel and Egypt (areas along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the Nile River). Surplus theory on city creation: 1. Agricultural surplus • Fertile lands allow farmers to produce more food than they need to survive • Farmers begin to live close to one another, and establish communities 2. Social stratification • Astructure of order and hierarchy is established 3. Specialization • The abundance of food allows individuals to survive without having to grow their own food. This allows these people to become specialized in other skills 4. Principle of agglomeration • As the city grows, people move from rural to urban areas where their skills are needed The early cities were small and compact, with low levels of urbanization. However, following the Industrial Revolution, cities grew in size to accommodate a surge of skilled workers and craftsmen Meanwhile: Types of rural settlem
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