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Part 2.docx Geo 1HB3

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Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 1HB3
Professor
Michael Mercier

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Part 2 15/01/13 Pages 13-28 HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS: ­ Space, location, place, distance, distribution ­ Geographic literacy* SPACE • Fundamental • About areal extent- think about it in two primary ways, 1. Absolute space (space that is objective, physically real, we can see it, measure it and has definable boundaries) Ex. McMaster campus- 50 acres, from here to there… ­ Most commonly used for map making (we have projected a sphere map to a flat map- we can measure how far places are) 2. Relative/subjective- depends on someone’s perspective, unique to each one of us, individual Ex. Apartment adds- term “cozy” means small (this means different things to different people, open to interpretation) ­ Also used for maps, most commonly topological map (TTC station in Toronto- shows your location, the stops and how many stop it takes to get somewhere- don’t really care about measuring how far places are from each other) LOCATION • Refer to particular position in space 1. Absolute (mathematical) location: conversions and uses longitude and latitude coordinates (grid system) -Unchanging ­ Ex GPS systems work on this system 2. Relative (perceived) location These are subject to change depending on one’s perspective ­ Ex: waiting for something, it feels like it takes longer but after doing it many times it feels shorter 3. Nominal: Toponym • The name we associate with a place Ex. city of Hamilton- its name based on founder of community Some things also have more than one name PLACE • Locations that have some sort of emotional attachment, meaning, significance for individuals or collective group • *Location + cultural/human meaning = place • Feelings we get from that place = sense of place • It is this sense of place ad uniqueness that inspires people to travel ­ Ex. Our class, turning from just a lecture hall to our class (added value) ­ Ex. If there is a house that has no meaning to you, it is a location (can be both) • Sacred places: often religious places- meaning and sense of place is significant (doesn’t have to be religious) • Placelessness: homogeneity and standardization (doesn’t have a sense of place, everything is exactly the same and standardized) ­ Ex. Most fast food places (east side Mario’s try to decorate in elements of little Italy to get that sense of place) and retail (Wal-Mart) Places we have never been like the Pyramids (you have a sense of what that place is like from what you have heard) DISTANCE • Using measurements of the amount of space between two or more locations or places • Mostly absolute, using generally accepted tool (ft., m, km) • Also measured by time (travel distance) • Also measured in dollars ($) –mailing, calling (economic/communication distance) • Psychological distance- same trips seem different distances depending on your psychological state at the time DISTRIBUTION • Geographic phenomena: distance and organization • We want to know how they are spatially distributed- the distances, organized 3 main forms of distributions: 1. Density: distinctive, measurable way of measuring distance ­ Involves a ratio: the number of banks within a specific area (Hamilton) ­ (Measure area of Hamilton, measure # of atm’s- ex. there are 1.34 atm’s/square km) ­ Low density and high density 2. Concentration/dispersion ­ How they are organized and spread within/over a particular area ­ Clustered (agglomerated)- distance small, close together ­ Like auto assembly factories ­ Dispersed (scattered)- distance high 3. Pattern: the spatial arrangement of objects ­ Linear pattern- subway spatial line ­ Random pattern- no organization ­ Uniform/ordered- trees in an orchard (linear but in an order), houses in uniform and ordered pattern Example ­ Map of locations of urban areas in the US ­ Density- there is some arbitrary line where you could say density is higher on one side of the line (higher of eastern US) ­ Concentration- cluster in urban areas of New York etc. but generally dispersed throughout the US  Most of today is in CH 3- but spatial interaction and diffusion found in Ch. 1 (p21-22) and more in Ch., 5 (p132-135) KEY CONCEPTS IN GEOGRAPHY 2 Geographic literacy- using appropriate geographic terms and concepts Spatial interaction: • A measure of the amount or level of movement/communication between two or more locations • (How much interaction is there between two locations- (movement of people, goods, telephones and other communications) • “Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things” • The greater the distance between two places the less interactions can be observed • Amount, degree or intensity of interaction declines as distance increases Examples: ­ Are you more likely to visit a nearby restaurant or a nearly identical one across town –more likely to go to the one closer to home ­ Are you more likely to meet with distant (former) neighbor or distant relative? ­ If neighbor moves away we don’t tend to have any interaction with them- we only had these interactions because they were our neighbor but we would keep interactions with siblings and other relatives even though these interactions would occur less frequently THE INFLUENCE OF DISTANCE  Distance decay: processes of which we have a decline of an activity or function as distance increases  The friction of distance: effect on interactions ­ Cause friction in ability to interact with those further away, has a retarding effect (slowing effect) Examples: • Hierarchy of spatial interactions between specific stores- there are more convenience stores because they are closer and people visit more frequently and less Canadian tires because you don’t need to go there everyday (people are wiling to travel a bit farther) • Rural consumption and travel patterns in rural residents (modern car culture shops in Kitchener/waterloo to shop where as Mennonites travel to closest place where they can buy particular good) ­ Friction of distance is different between these people, this contradicts and agrees with this theory- there is consumer choice but Mennonites chose closest place) Accessibility and connectivity (critical for spatial interaction)  Accessibility: Ease with which people can cross-distances (car vs. horse and buggy- accessibility for these two people very different)  Connectivity: tangible (see) and intangible (cant see) between two or more locations (phone lines connecting two or more places, roads, train routes, plane routes… the more there are the more connected) ­ In our society we think everything is connected ­ Levels of connections speaks to friction of distance ­ Based on accessibility and connectivity places have either high levels of friction of distance (very difficult) or low levels of friction of distance (easily connected) ­ Global friction of distance has been decreasing (increasing dramatically the level (ex: shipment of goods in the 1900’s) Gravity: quantity of movement or interaction between two places: ­ Relative sizes of two places very important (two big cities lots of interaction) ­ As is the distance between two places (two cities close together connected) ­ Distance decay function/friction of distance • FORMULA: Iij K * ((P * Pi / Dj) ij where,  I ij the amount of interaction between two places, i & j;  K is a constant;  P &iP arj the population sizes of places i & j respectively;  D iijthe distance between i and j; and  x is the distance decay function (i.e. the rate at which interactions decline with distance) • Assume: K=1, and x=2 => what level of interaction exists between Comm. A & B? • What about B to D?  Therefor there is more interaction between B&D then there is between A&B or A&C In general: “the attraction between two objects is proportional to their mass, inversely proportional to the perspective distance” ­ As distance between places increases- interaction goes down Social diffusion: how geographic phenomena spread across space across time ­ (Social phenomena that spread- musical styles, fashion styles, YouTube videos) Spatial diffusion: • How things spread over space and over time • Distance, friction of distance and densities of population • In dense populations things spread quicker Example: Wal-Mart ­ Spread extremely quickly from origin place to across the world (contagious diffusion) A variety of different types of spatial diffusion exist: • Contagious diffusion: Infectious disease (involves contact) – one individual interacts with another and as places are connected disease spreads very quickly • Relocation: Individual move from one place to another and brings their culture, religion, language, food- spread of these things in North America • Hierarchal: we have places with high tech hierarchy- certain places get new gadgets first (places at top of hierarchy) 22/01/13 GEOGRAPHIC TOOLS: MAPS AND SPATIAL UNDERSTANDING p. 37-57 (mostly CH 2) Gravity model and cities Worksheet • So, which two cities have the highest level of interaction? New York and Philadelphia What are the primary influences over the level of interaction? • Separation or distance and the size of the cities • (Size of the two cities (bigger cities=more interaction) • Distance between cities (closer together=more interaction) What effect does changing the distance decay function have? • If we change the connectivity between two places the level of interaction is likely to change (level of interaction changes) Is it reasonable to assume,
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