Study Guides (283,566)
CA (135,450)
McMaster (8,395)
GEOG (184)
GEOG 2EI3 (8)
Midterm

GEOG 2EI3 Midterm: Env Issues - Midterm 2 Review

12 Pages
20 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 2EI3
Professor
Luc Bernier
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 12 pages of the document.
Env. Issues - Midterm #2 Review
Lecture 7: Climate Change
Evidence of Climate Change/Scientific Explanations
Since the 19th century average global temperature has increased by 0.6C (give or take
0.2C)
o Warmest years since 1850
Strong consensus that GHG increase is due to human activity
o Deforestation, Factories, Farming
Forecast of Impacts on Natural Systems and Human Society
Impacts on Cryosphere (frozen part of the earth)
o From 1992 to 2012, most of (almost all) of the Greenland ice sheet is in the
process of melting
o Due to melting permafrost, there are a lot more landslides
o Ice roads are unstable due to the warmth (very important for transportation)
Impacts on Human Society
o Hard to predict how people will behave when facing the effects of climate change
in the future
Impacts on PEI
Globally: sea level rise of 0.1 0.2 metres per century during the past 100 to 200 years
The coast of PEI is one of Canada’s most sensitive areas to sea-level
o This is due to the type of rock (it erodes very easily)
Impacts on the Province:
o Potential for ice-ride-up (ice gets pushed up onto land and can damage buildings,
etc.)
o Increased storminess/storm surges (sea rises past high tide) … this causes
increased erosion
o $200+ million causes by these factors
Northern Quebec is actually expected to face the biggest transformation due to climate
change in Canada
Fort McMurray wildfire was the costliest disaster in Canada’s history
The Kyoto Protocol (Terms of the Policy, Its Fate)
More than 160 countries represented
Goal: reduce emissions of GHGs by 2012
55 developed countries
55% of 1990 emissions
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Targets for developed nations to reduce GHG emissions by at least 5% below 1990 levels
in the timespan of 2008 to 2012
US produced 25% of GHG emissions: but only 5% of world’s population
Canada and India had no targets (this caused criticism)
Bush (President of US at the time) asked why is China left out?
18% reductions over 10 years
GHG intensity: emissions/GDP
Legally binding
Emissions Credits & Trading
o Credits can be earned by a nation based on land use or forestry initiatives that
reduce measurable GHG emissions
o Cap and Trade: If one company reduces it emissions it can sell credits to other
companies that created too many emissions
Post Kyoto: reduction in emissions by 50% by 2015
Canada’s Record on Climate Change
Canada signed the Kyoto Protocol in 2002: but had no clear plan
Called for reduction in GHG emissions from large industries
o But car manufacturers were excluded…
Canada ended up dropping out of the protocol to focus on the economy
Instead of decreasing emissions, Canada increased by 20% in 2004
In 2006: Canada was given the Fossil Award (given to a country for lack of action on
climate change)
Canada just tolerates its losses… no plans/action to change in the future
Lecture 8: Oceans & Fisheries
Ocean Acidification & Impacts on Fisheries
As CO2 dissolves into oceans it becomes bicarbonate
1/3 of annual human CO2 emissions dissolve into oceans
50% of human emissions of CO2 since 1750 have dissolved into oceans
Bicarbonate = HCO3
o The more CO2 we create the more bicarbonate in oceans
o Bicarbonate causes: lack of diversity, diminishing coral (which makes ‘slime’),
hard for shellfish to grow their shells
This may lead to a food crisis if our actions do not change
Issues in Ocean Fishery Management
Continental shelves: 18% of the oceans
o And provide for 90% of global fisheries
o E.g. Shanghai by 2100: 75% of world’s population, 11% of land
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Fisheries provide 20% of the global protein supply
o In Asia and Oceania, it may provide and even higher percentage
2.6 billion people
Environmental Impacts of Marine Fisheries (Bycatch, Pollution, etc.)
More than 80% of global fisheries are either fully utilized or overexploited
Evidence:
o Size of predators now 20% to 50% smaller than they used to be
o Fishers target bigger fish due to their value and release smaller fish
Harder to repopulate because larger fish have more success than smaller
ones
Environmental Impacts:
o Fishing down the food chain: fish are now caught at deeper and deeper depths
World fish population has decreased by half
o Bycatch: non-targeted species of marine life caught in fishing activities
25% of global fisheries
149 aquatic dead zones in 2003… over 200 in 2006
Impacts on Marine Ecosystems:
o Offshore Drilling: over 60% of current oil produced
Deepwater Horizon explosion, 2010
Toxins in drill mud
Coastal Zone Development:
o About 5% of the world’s population lives less than 100km from ocean coasts
There is no legislation about coastal development in 50% of countries with
coastlines
E.g. destruction of coastal wetlands
Collapse of Cod Fisheries (What Happened?)
Large boats from all over the world came to the Grand Banks in Newfoundland to fish
cod outside on the limits
o Then the traditional Canadian fishermen boats fished this area in the summer
Catch in the late 1950s: about 150,000 tonnes
Catch in 1974: about 35,000 tonnes
The rate fish were caught was beyond the rate they could reproduce
So Canada closed off its territorial waters from foreign fishers
o But local fishers still only caught smaller fish
DFO (Department of Fisheries and Oceans) said there were still a lot of fish
Population of cod crashed in 1986… closed off all commercial fishing of cod
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Env. Issues - Midterm #2 Review Lecture 7: Climate Change Evidence of Climate Change/Scientific Explanations th Since the 19 century average global temperature has increased by 0.6C (give or take 0.2C) o Warmest years since 1850 Strong consensus that GHG increase is due to human activity o Deforestation, Factories, Farming Forecast of Impacts on Natural Systems and Human Society Impacts on Cryosphere (frozen part of the earth) o From 1992 to 2012, most of (almost all) of the Greenland ice sheet is in the process of melting o Due to melting permafrost, there are a lot more landslides o Ice roads are unstable due to the warmth (very important for transportation) Impacts on Human Society o Hard to predict how people will behave when facing the effects of climate change in the future Impacts on PEI Globally: sea level rise of 0.1 0.2 metres per century during the past 100 to 200 years The coast of PEI is one of Canadas most sensitive areas to sea-level o This is due to the type of rock (it erodes very easily) Impacts on the Province: o Potential for ice-ride-up (ice gets pushed up onto land and can damage buildings, etc.) o Increased storminess/storm surges (sea rises past high tide) this causes increased erosion o $200+ million causes by these factors Northern Quebec is actually expected to face the biggest transformation due to climate change in Canada Fort McMurray wildfire was the costliest disaster in Canadas history The Kyoto Protocol (Terms of the Policy, Its Fate) More than 160 countries represented Goal: reduce emissions of GHGs by 2012 55 developed countries 55% of 1990 emissions Targets for developed nations to reduce GHG emissions by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the timespan of 2008 to 2012 US produced 25% of GHG emissions: but only 5% of worlds population Canada and India had no targets (this caused criticism) Bush (President of US at the time) asked why is China left out? 18% reductions over 10 years GHG intensity: emissions/GDP Legally binding Emissions Credits & Trading o Credits can be earned by a nation based on land use or forestry initiatives that reduce measurable GHG emissions o Cap and Trade: If one company reduces it emissions it can sell credits to other companies that created too many emissions Post Kyoto: reduction in emissions by 50% by 2015 Canadas Record on Climate Change Canada signed the Kyoto Protocol in 2002: but had no clear plan Called for reduction in GHG emissions from large industries o But car manufacturers were excluded Canada ended up dropping out of the protocol to focus on the economy Instead of decreasing emissions, Canada increased by 20% in 2004 In 2006: Canada was given the Fossil Award (given to a country for lack of action on climate change) Canada just tolerates its losses no plans/action to change in the future Lecture 8: Oceans & Fisheries Ocean Acidification & Impacts on Fisheries As CO2 dissolves into oceans it becomes bicarbonate 1/3 of annual human CO2 emissions dissolve into oceans 50% of human emissions of CO2 since 1750 have dissolved into oceans Bicarbonate = HCO3 o The more CO2 we create the more bicarbonate in oceans o Bicarbonate causes: lack of diversity, diminishing coral (which makes slime), hard for shellfish to grow their shells This may lead to a food crisis if our actions do not change Issues in Ocean Fishery Management Continental shelves: 18% of the oceans o And provide for 90% of global fisheries o E.g. Shanghai by 2100: 75% of worlds population, 11% of land Fisheries provide 20% of the global protein supply o In Asia and Oceania, it may provide and even higher percentage 2.6 billion people Environmental Impacts of Marine Fisheries (Bycatch, Pollution, etc.) More than 80% of global fisheries are either fully utilized or overexploited Evidence: o Size of predators now 20% to 50% smaller than they used to be o Fishers target bigger fish due to their value and release smaller fish Harder to repopulate because larger fish have more success than smaller ones Environmental Impacts: o Fishing down the food chain: fish are now caught at deeper and deeper depths World fish population has decreased by half o Bycatch: non-targeted species of marine life caught in fishing activities 25% of global fisheries 149 aquatic dead zones in 2003 over 200 in 2006 Impacts on Marine Ecosystems: o Offshore Drilling: over 60% of current oil produced Deep
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit