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GEOG 2UI3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Transportation Alternatives, High Tech, Neoliberalism

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Robert Wilton
Study Guide

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Definition of Terms
-originated from the latin word “urbs” which meant walled town or city!
-we define an urban settlement by looking at the number of people and the density!
-in Canada, an urban area needs to have a minimum population concentration, and a population density !
-the process of becoming urban!
-relative concentration of population in towns and cities!
Urban Systems!
-urban entered regions (cities, towns, and hinterlands) that function as a system!
-regional, national, and international scales!
-it describes the connected network of towns, cities, and how they relate to each other!
-way of life within cities, and how people live!
-urbanization brings new ways of living and behaving!
-way of life changes due to number of people, physical density, heterogeneity (people who are dierent in
terms of race, gender) !
Urban Form!
-how cities organize internally, who lives where with who!
-the internal structure of cities!
-complex systems that are hard to capture entirely, but can identify them of a series of fundamental
properties that characterize cities!
-nature of, and relationships between, these properties can change radically to produce very dierent urban
environments over time and space!
7 Fundamental Properties of Cities
1. production!
-key reason for urban settlement: specialized production acuities in specific places: in recent history, there is
a relationship between Canada’s urbanization and industrialization !
-production of things require the location of capital, labour, and power!
-specialized production meant that cities have been unable to satisfy their consumption requirements: cities
depend on a territory that dar exceeds their built up area!
-geographical nature of this dependency has changed over time, historically, we have well defined local rural
hinterland, but now it is a global hinterland !
-specialized production & export changes over time!
-modern Canadian cities emerged from an industrial economy!
-recent decades have been deindustrialization and rise of a new knowledge economy!
-many small urban places geared to extraction and early stage transformation of commodities!
2. Proximity!
-coming together of people and activities within cities!
-proximity facilitates production, interaction!
-urban residents need to be close to work, education, services, activities, family !
-the city comprises numerous overlapping markets of frequently repeated exchanges !
-the notion of proximity is relative!
-pre-industrial cities were walking cities: important activities has to be centralized!
-auto-mobility allowed urban living to become highly decentralized !
-technology has not rendered the need for physical proximity obsolete: renewed focus on proximity and
face to face interaction !
3. Reproduction!
-conditions essential to the continued provision of an ample labour force!
-biological reproduction!
-social reproduction: well being and support of individuals, families !
-early industrial cities: environmental degradation and social deprivation !
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-urban planning and public/ state intervention !
-social reproduction has a particular urban geography!
-this is a gendered geography but one that has witnessed tremendous change in recent decades!
-increasing labour market participation!
-dierences among women !
4. Capitalization!
-volume of capital and resources invested in a given parcel of land!
-scarcity of land in cities means significant capital investment !
-capitalization is determined by engineering capacities!
-larger, denser, taller cities vs sprawl and low density suburbs!
-capitalization creates durable urban landscape!
-but demographics, technologies, economic activities can change more rapidly !
-there are tensions between continuity and change!
5. Place!
-how people attach meaning to portions of the urban environment !
-critical to emotional experience of urban living!
-sensitivity to place is critical to good urban design!
-late C.20th cities are increasingly placeless !
-there are mass production and duplication of housing estates, malls!
-renewed interest in the distinctiveness of place!
-naming/ reclaiming of local place identities but this focus on distinction is often linked to the marketing and
selling of place!
6. Governance!
-administrative structures & political processes that respond to urban needs/ challenges!
-proximity and capitalization necessitate eorts to manage urban life to ensure orderly cohabitation !
-“Haphazard development decisions can plunge a city into a state of chaos”!
-planning/regulation: anti-capitalism or ensuring conditions for continued capitalist development? !
-last century: responsibilities of municipal governance have expanded!
-infrastructure, transportation and services, but recent funding cuts have created a fiscal crunch !
-eorts now to find a new deal for cities !
7. Environment!
-cities must find ways to respect and sustain their natural environments if they are to survive!
-over time, understanding of the scale of environmental impacts has shifted !
-19th century: focus often at local level: localized eects of industrial production!
-mid 20 century: regional focus: air pollution!
-now: a global focus relating to sustainability and survival in the context of climate change!
-cities have long been successful in exporting, and thus overlooking, their environmental!
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Urban Form: Pre-Industrial Cities
Urban Form: the internal organization of towns and cities !
-compact pedestrian cities!
-Internal structure!
-centered on port (waterfront, warehouses)!
-wealthiest homes close by !
-housing extended away from the core!
-“a walking city at a human scale in which home and work were tightly bound by the organization of work
into patriarchal and familial groupings”
Social Geography!
-elite at core, surrounded by occupationally distinct but socially mixed areas, with poor on fringe!
Urban Form: Industrial Cities!
-urban geography is transformed by industrialization!
“Inversion of Locational Prestige” (Edward Soja) !
1. industrialization changed spatial organization of paid work!
2. social status reorganized along class lines!
3. intense competition for land!
-corporations demand best location for factories, warehouses, oces!
-elite and burgeoning middle-classes move out of core!
-working class have little power over residential location!
-low incomes precluded commuting, better quality housing!
4. evolving transportation options (rail, streetcar) !
-cities varied but had common elements!
-central business district !
-a factory belt or zone!
-a zone in transition!
-compact residential areas segregated by class ethnicity !
-residential patterning shaped by other factors such as transit lines and environment !
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