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History 1DD3 - All Lecture and Some Reading Notes (Both Books embedded).docx

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Department
History
Course
HISTORY 2DD3
Professor
Bernice Kaczynski
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 2 9/9/2013 8:24:00 AM Petrarch -Antiquitas (Antiquity) Medium Aevum (Middle Age)  German scholar coined the term for the first time and this term was used more and more  This was then used from then on  Middle Ages  This can be used as a term of hostility from the decline of the Roman Empire to the Italian Renaissance  Everything bad is related to the Middle Ages (as pitched by history)  In a sense they are right to call it the middle as it is b/w two periods of time but that can be said for every age  Medieval Period was a transition b/w a passing of the classical civilization of the Classical world (Rome and Greek) till the European world Modernitas (Modernity)  Modern: Middle of the 1300’s to 1400’s on (we are the moderns they would say) Early Middle Ages (ca 400 – ca 1050) -Middle Ages described as a blank space -Not an intermediate zone as it is known as -Should be seen as a unique period which lasts for 10 centuries High Middle Ages (ca 1050 – ca 1250) -Development of scholasticism -The Crusades -Rise in Uni’s -The Black Death -100 years war Late Middle Ages (ca 1250 – ca 1400) -Petrarch writes a letter to his friend and writes a letter during the Italian Renaissance, and its mentioned that this is a wonderful time and they wanted to make themselves look great and compared it to classical Rome (how did that vanish, and something else came in its place)  -The way he writes this letter he and his friend look at the ruins and wonder what happened, how did the empire crumble, they see that was the problem  Middle ages were then seen as a problem and something undesirable -He showed the difference b/w ancient Greece and Rome, and the European world that followed  Segmented the world for the first time  Modern (adoption of Christianity) to his present  Before Christianity (ancient Rome and Greece) is the time period before then  1400’s and 1500’s Italian scholars coined the term and used it negatively (Italian Humanists didn’t know what they were talking about)  Edward Gibbon (wealthy prosperous man living in the city) 2 nd century AD is a great time (Roman citizen) -> elitist view of Rome o He was visiting Rome and put down Middle Ages similar to Petrarch o He was asking how did it decline this wonderful empire? He blamed it on Christianity o He doesn’t examine his own position and doesn’t stop and nd think that everyone would agree that 2 century AD was the best time period o Represents the first moment of triumph of barbarism vs religion  Novelists, etc during the Romantic period loved the themes of Medieval Ages o Used them in their work o This Romantic movement  National movements begin and governments begin to fund money for research  Study of history is related to propaganda  In Germany Khizer puts money into uni’s to look at German’s national past (Medieval German empire) and to collect documents that relate to the past Sources Reading: Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire -The Late Roman Empire  Talks about the atrocities of the nobles, the way they act in public and demand things of the common people  The leech off of women and times have changed where such atrocity is done openly at bath houses  Respect in necessary for these noble men  They lack knowledge in the sense that they don’t respect books, texts and feel no need to grow  They rip people off and can’t be trusted  They are cruel to their servants and assistants, lacking patience and tolerance for those “below them”  They can demand for their slave to be lashed 300 times for brining them water too slowly  Initiation to dinner and of immense importance, not going is worse than slaying a noble’s brother  There is foul play in their actions, they make people trust them, write wills and then these individuals disappear (metaphor for nobles not to be trusted and that they misuse their power)  They engage in gambling and acts of play The Theodosian Code:  -Relates to laws that put people in their place  Emphasized tax  Slaves are limitations with certain laws mentioned  People are classified based on birth and marriage and instantly categorized  Unfair treatment and laws to make sure the nobles maintain their power through generations Salvianus: Burden of Taxation  Christian priest Salvanius wrote conditions of Gaul as a punishment and judgment from God (due to the barbarian invasions), and that the Romans had brought this on by their wickedness o Talks about tax levies o People can’t pay then amount they are unnecessarily burdened with o They can’t owe and give back the money in many cases and go to the very people they should be fleeing from (they flee to the enemy to avoid the full force of the tax levy) o Taxation is made more shameful and burdensome as all do not bear the burden of all o “They” extort tribute from the poor man for the taxes of the rich, and the weaker carry the load of the stronger o Also people who pay tax are not told where the tax goes o Rich men are the ones to blame o “Do we think that we are constantly wicked, that God should not exercise His justice against us all?” Sidonius (Country House Life in Gaul):  This is a letter from an aristocrat from Gaul during the same time period as a the priest and he represented a different world view of the situation o He talks to his friend in a letter o Describes his stay in the country in two neighboring homes o He goes on about how he enjoys his stay and the wonderful scenery o He also talks about the wonderful library, books, food and games (gambling) The Investiture Controversy:  9 thcentury many castles and monasteries fell under the control of the lay lords  Major movement of monastic reform began with the founding of the abbey of Cluny in 910 (rules for this are found below)  Rich men have been provided for by God, and if they use what they have been provided well they will be rewarded  William (count and duke of Germany) says he has been made so with his position by the grace of God  He gives up the town of cluny and everything in it (church, etc) in the name of Peter and Paul (apostles) so that a regular monastery in Cluny shall be constructed for the apostles, according to the rule of St. Benedict  Monks to be under Abbot Berno  When the abbot does pass the monks and clergy can pick a new abbot based on canonical law and that of St. Benedict  No man or lay person shall invade the property of God says the King th th  In the 10 / 11 century the church greatly emphasized the sanctity of kingship  This was a great king indeed since Charlemagne  Henry III used his powers to establish in Rome the reforming pope Leo IX  Cardinal Humbert sharply condemned the practice of royal investiture of bishops  Anyone who appoints a prelate with these two symbols undoubtedly claims all pastoral authority for himself in presuming to do so  One so instituted imposes himself by violence on the clergy, people and nobles to dominate them instead of being acknowledged, sought out and requested by them, so he too encroaches on the metropolitan o For he doesn’t require/ receive the metropolitan’s approval but only demands/ extorts the service of prayer  In the present church the priesthood is like the soul, the kingship like the body  To maintain the independence of the papacy from outside interference, a new method of electing popes was devised during Nicholas II’s time o For the first time a decisive voice was given to the cardinals of the Roman Church o To maintain independence of the papacy, a new method of electing popes was adopted (cardinals had a say) o The most eminent churchmen shall be the leaders in carrying out the election of a pope the other follow o The elected authority is to rule the Roman Church and to use all its resources as the true pope  The Program of Gregory VII o Simony was to be stopped and clerical marriage o Simony made illegal o Guilt people into leaving such evil deed of simony o Gregory wanted to institute moral reform but also in asserting high claims for papal power o Dictate of the Pope:  Roman Church was founded by God alone  Roman pontiff alone can with right be called universal  He alone can depose or reinstate bishops  His legate is above all bishops and can pass sentence of deposition against them  Pope may depose the absent  Can’t remain in the same house as those excommunicated  Check book for more rules  I.e did undermine king through these dictates  Gregory and Henry o King Henry IV of Germany refused to obey the pope’s decree and so Gregory was condemned as a usurper o Refer to lecture notes for the rest of the conclusion Lecture 3 9/9/2013 8:24:00 AM Investiture Controversy (Contest) Church (Sacerdotium) vs Sate (Regnum) -Outcome for a long movement of moral reform in the Church -Popes in Rome talked about “liberty of the church” from worldly control  -When they wanted to adopt this, there was a clash b/w rulers and the Church  Chuch vs state erupted from Medieval Times  Creative period was unleashed  Reform of the church o Dark situation of the church coming from the middle ages o Christianity had advanced during the Middle Ages, and Christianity had won lot’s of converts and had developed a complex institutional structure (which was woven into the fabric of early medieval society) o Early Middle Ages (3 elements are apparent, Christian Faith, Barbarian Invasions, Roman State) o Christian religion was embedded within society o Spiritual ideals of Christianity and what people thought was the reality (there was a great tension, what people came to expect from Christianity and what they saw around them) o Role of the church (reform movement) created a new foundation where European ideals rested o In the middle of the 1000’s (religious authority on the one hand or secular authority on the other hand) o Church and state are a problem b/c they grew up together o Constantine thought he was the head of the Church (he described himself as equal of the apostles, friend of god (Astagfirulla!!!!!!!!!!) o Early popes weren’t strong enough to oppose him o When he accepted Christianity it was good as persecution of Christians stopped, but boundaries became blurred as he was an Emperor involved in the Church o Difficulties arose as to where do you draw the line, assertive authority of each aspect? o Popes weak during times, Emperors were strong and they assumed authority for the most part o Late 900’s 1000’s leaders of the Church said we must be free of the State o Power base built using the Church, (i.e Abbott family) and this is where conflict began) o Middle of 800’s and 900’s 3 groups of external invaders (Magyards, Arabs, Vikings) o Feudalized system arises from these invasions as they turn to these lords (armed men) and they surrender freedom for safety  Chaotic period of time  Lack of unified political structure  Much devastation  Monastery discipline broke down  Monks, Priests, Popes o Crises’ that caused for reform w/I and outside the Church o Many kings of Europe wanted to reform the church (there were some pious men as well)  Monastic Life o Quality of monastic life reached a low life o Monks are running around seeking sanctuary from external invaders o These monks then wanted protection, knights, etc helped them an in turn they surrender many freedoms o Became a trend for the Abbott of the men to turn to feudal lord who offered protection and say if you protect us, we will give you certain powers (i.e choosing the next Abbott) o Became unclear what is Church and what is state? o Why would a knight care who the abbot of the monastery was?  He might want to increase his own power (the knight)  He would want revenues from the Church  German Kings took idea of reform seriously and appointed Abbots, they appointed men of high spiritual belonging  3 Types of people in society (those you work, those to fight, those who pray)  (Peasants, Warlords/ Nobles, Church)  Medieval Priests o Priests were effected by adverse conditions o Two problems/ habits that had arisen naturally due to early invasions: Clerical marriage, marriage of priests, simony  Clerical Celibacy:  Parish priests were married and settled, rural, peasant society, two people needed to have household function  No need for celibacy and no one was there to enforce it  Peasant population preferred priests to be married and they felt safer  Celibacy (the rule of it) had existed for a long time, Roman Church accepted it but not the Greek th church in the early 4 century  Unenforceable  Marriage was prevalent in Italy  Objectors claimed that whoever was bound to the world (family) was bound to the world and not to God  Offices may become hereditary  i.e with Bishops  Local or parish level it was possible, but it was said Christ wasn’t married and shouldn’t do it  Simony:  Buying/ Selling of Church Offices o Wealth circulates through Churches and some people wanted these offices, and they may have bought them o Reformers objected to this, principal at stake was no trafficking of spiritual people o Holy persons had to be chosen through leadership, not through relation with elites  By the early 1000’s people aren’t happy with the Church  Aren’t happy with the state of the priests and bishops Pope vs Emperor  Tension took a personal form (Popes led the Church, and the Popes were opposed by the rulers of Europe) o German Kings opposed o Charlemain thought he was equal or superior to the pope  Clunyac Reform: Benedict laid down the rule for monastic life  Interpret this life in very strict terms  Directly accountable to Pope and not the Lord  Leader of monastery should be appointed by the Church and not the Emperor  Popes o As the Clunyac Reform increased  Condition of the Popes in the 900’s was poor after external invasions  German rulers initially said that the reform of the monasteries was good  They selected holy men, and took it very seriously  In Italy it was different, noble families ran the city like thugs  The family competed to place their sons in these positions as it was a lucrative position o In theory Popes were to be elected by the clergy and people of Rome, and Emperor would consent  In reality lords would terrorize the people for right people to be voted, Emperors were to far away to know  Many Popes came and went, assassinated and it was a mess  Low point of corruption  Many heroic figures stepped in  Situation in Rome was so dreadful and shocking of the faith, German Emperors were horrified and he wanted to clean it up (He was the descendant of rulers who had assumed over the centuries head of church and state)  Responsible for God for all his people  Charlemaine believed he was responsible, German rules thought that too  King and Emperors were responsible for everything  Pope Gregory VII vs Emperor Henry IV rd -Henry the 3 was concerned about the situation and went to Rome -3 men who claimed to be the Pope, he was shocked by the situation -Synod of Sutri (held in 1046) Church gathering  3 guys were trying to persuade emperor they were the legitimate pope  He appointed a pope (religious person)  Germans who may have been assassinated (in a short period of time he and successor Pope died) th  Leo the 9 (1049-1054) succeeded in establishing Papisi in establishing new reform agency (appointed by the German emperor) o Cleaned up things, how to appoint abbot, etc o It was also developed that Emperors couldn’t choose people for the Church, dramatic controversy  German emperors lost out from the support of the Church in the long run  Germany lost its sense of unity -Church was the only order in societies that didn’t have it -People however towards that order -Important b/c it led to the reform of the Church, opposite of Pope is Papisi (role of leadership in leading the Church)  Led to this assertion of power on the part of Popes  Pope became leader of latin church  Later on it had consequences for European countries, especially Germany and German emperor  Two questions: o Why call is debate over investitures?  “Feudalism” is when economic and political power is in the hands of the military (turning to Lord/ someone who had armed power when external attacks took place)  Lords had a lot of authority of serfs or peasants  Sometimes Lords were bishops/ abbots or people from the church  System of power, authority figure were local boards (“thugs”) who had an awful lot of power  They were members of authority (abbots, bishops), these were younger siblings of families where older sibling was lord, knight, etc, daughters married off to advantageous matches  All communities were rural and basic need was physical security, security of their own person  Successful lords provided that  Never a neat arrangement  No such pyramid of power  System implies order, and there was more chaos than that with “feudalism”  Series of over lapping circles of influence  Personal arrangements, lord and vassal relations are personal, one on one, bound together with personal rituals and obligations  Different ways in which people organized themselves  Elements (separate origins for each element)  Personal (b/w lord and basal)  Propriety (real estate, fief (feudum) related to warfare, man holds fief for service in exchange from lord  Governmental (powers of the state are parceled out to lords all over Europe)  This arrangement of elements would be disrupted with investiture  These elements merged to “Feudal System”  Relationship b/w mutual loyalty is a key theme in Medieval society  Loyalty to the leader  Act of Homage  Knights are given things in order to fight for lord  Act of homage need to kneel before lord bear headed as a sign of submission  Place hands on the hands of lord without his sword and make a formal promise  Physical gesture of submission  Oath is spoken (vassal would say I will become lord’s vassal for the days of my life for all men who come to harm the lord)  Physical gesture b/w two men, lord would kiss/ touch/ physical contact b/w two men to affirm special bond to look after one another  Lord would declare lord accepts vassal  Doesn’t indicate homosexuality  Act of Fealty  Sworn upon gospel/ cross, something sacred, Christian ceremony, oath made, public and people would watch  Act of Homage  Act of Investiture  In this ceremony lord would give vassal some material thing that symbolized the fief  (I lord _____ invest you ______ with 5 villages, fields outside castle to use as fief) symbol of fief could be clump of earth (soil from land, symbolized that fief)  Lord could have bishop/ abbot as a vassal o Wouldn’t necessarily fight, but would owe you troops from his land  In case of ceremony would invest bishop with symbol of his office (bishop its ring, abbot it’s a staff)  These ceremonies were taken literally  It was essential ceremonies take place properly and in front of witnesses  If not fully completed, it did not count  Kings and rulers are investing and this ceremony is going to create trouble (UNDERSTAND FOR EXAM)  Why was this crisis so especially acute in Germany? o This conflict led for only Germany for the ruler’s authority to be destroyed, central authority didn’t get back into place in Imperial era o Tension in Europe, German ruler didn’t want to be vassal (since he was powerful himself) o Stem Dukes (had tribal/ ethnic loyalty)  Dukes fought for kinship Saxony  Franconia  Swabia  Bavaria  Lotharingia (Lorraine)  German monarch was king of Germany and king of roman, emperor  More ambitious due to this o Conrad of Franconia (911 – 918) o Henry I the Fowler (919 – 936) o Otto I the Great (936 – 973)  He was the first emperor  We refer to them as Germans, thought of themselves in tribal terms  Wanted to unify Dukes under him (it was hard to do so, Dukes fought back)  Eventually he was successful by asserting military authority, stem dukes united under external attacks, this defeat made Otto known as Otto the Great and got compliance from his followers  He attempted to establish control (he needed an alternative power base -> Church)  Church was wealthy, he relied on Church and he placed people he trusted in high positions in Church (he invested them)  Three Mechanisms for Control (he controlled the Church)  Lay Investiture  Propriety Churches  Lay Advocacy  Had an ally to tackle the dukes  When reform came and emperor was said to be lay person chaos erupted Lecture 4 9/9/2013 8:24:00 AM Pope Leo XI (1049-1054) -Lasted the throne for 5 years -He established the Papisi (head of the new reform movement) -Recruited like minded people, gathered them and they then worked with him -Appointed them cardinals -He made cardinals more useful -Clerical celibacy was placed in legislation, and he intended to enforce them -Decrees against simony (buying and selling church offices) -Travel took place to enforce laws -If people disagreed they should come to Rome and get a arbitrary -Important pope in line of strong reforming popes -He died and was replaced by Nicholas Pope Nicholas II (1058-1061) -Replaced Leo who had died -He called the Church council and they made a new way to elect the Pope -New method decreed to elect the pope -People and clergy with approval of emperor had chosen pope -But pope will be elected by college of cardinals and they would be the only people to elect pope with new system  Done to make sure elites didn’t control office, done to protect spiritual integrity of the church -Church had to be free from worldly figures Papal Election Decree, 1059 College of Cardinals Cardinal Hildebrand -> Pope  Gregory VII  He became Pope  Took on a new dimension (reform)  Monks and nuns had to lead holy lives  Wanted to centralize church under the authority of the pope, and “liberty of the Church” and “freedom of the church” were emphasized phrases  Took on the name Gregory to denote “Gregory the Great”  The phrases meant freedom of all people in church to obey the new cannon law of church  Bishops/ monks to be free from lay person, and that control  End to lay investiture  Feudal monarchs depended on churchmen to run their state for them (church people were the only literates, relatives of noble families, kings and emperors depending on them to run their kingdoms)  Council of church published decrees  Germany, France protested Gregorian Reform -Reform led my Papisi -Restructured the church -Transformed medieval society -Church led moment to reform itself with the Popes in Rome Decree against Lay Investiture, 1075 Emperor Henry IV (1056-1106) -He was surprised by the movement as he had made a great investment to the church -He need the church to run administrative tasks -Gregory’s decree raised the question of the role of the king in a Christian society -Role of a leader in that society (did king had jurisdiction over all people and clergy as well? Traditionally yes.) -He protested lay investiture -Undermined imperial power, papal authority became superior -Letters were written back and forth -In 1075 Gregory put forward a doc called Dictates of a Pope (emphasized authority of the pope)  Assertions about what cardinals and traditions of the church were  Gregory is saying pope has that power to take care of the people, and he wants to change it  You can’t reform the church and the world if rulers are able to meddle in the affairs of the church -Bitter exchange of letters -Gregory said Emperor had no respect for Papacy -Disobedience to Pope was disobedience of God, Pope has to be obeyed -Henry says in one letter many abuses -Dukes removed their alliances and Pope ex-communicated the emperor -Lay people became rebellious, bishops were on Germany’s side -Vows of vassals didn’t owe Henry loyalty Canossa -Castle where Henry made confession to priest -For 3 days he stood outside castle to make confession -Priest has to listen to confession and give him absolution, he wasn’t then ex-communicated, and he got his power back -Owned my matilda the widow -Ex-communication was lifted, interpretations vary -Some historians say he marked the peak of papal power, but Henry had a one up -Other kings of Europe didn’t want to see humiliation of another king  -became alarmed by this and what pope was doing -Controversy of lay investiture continued -In 1080 they continued to communicate, ex-communication was tried again and people didn’t care and he died in that way -Henry took over Italy, Gregory died when he ran -Popes start to egg Henry’s successors, destabilizing time for church and state -England wasn’t to effected, in France king kept issue muted -Germany suffered the most -Germany fought many rebellions, and battles in Italy -German unity shatters -High middle ages can date their nations and their origins then Lecture 5 9/9/2013 8:24:00 AM Conclusion of the Investiture Controvery -All of Europe homage fealty and investiture was popular King Philip I of France (1060-1108) -Corrupt -Notorious for simony -Tensions b/w them (popes and Philip) -Struggle with German ruler became very intense and they couldn’t (Popes) fight everyone -France was an ally of an ally to the Pope (couldn’t fight much (france)) as they would lose political stability William I the Conqueror (1066-1087) -Known to be a friend of the reform of the church -He controlled what went on in England -After he died controversy got nasty -Letters weren’t to be read in his kingdom -While he was alive he controlled the situation Anonymous of York -This was someone who possibly lived in York, known as anonymous as name isn’t given -Probably a cleric, a monk or bishop who was a royalist who belived in the right of the kings to invest abbots, abysses, bishops -He said kings and queens were rep. of Christ on earth, king rep. Christ’s divine nature and pope demonstrates Christ’s human nature (ASTAGFIRULLA) -King was greater than priest, just as God was greater than man -Pro royal Manegold of Lautenbach -Swineherd theory of kings -King is just like a swineherd (an insult) if he doesn’t do the job right you can get rid of him -Papacy exceeds all powers of this world, king is just an employee to do a certain task and then “like a swineherd he can be dismissed and put in his place) -Pro papacy -These two men had two extreme views with little room for compromise -There was a man who thought of a compromise (whether bishop is chosen with canon law)  In the long run pointed ways to solutions King Henry V (1106-1125) - Pope Calixtus II (1119-1124) Condordat of Worms, 1122 -Agreement (comes from latin) -Condordat “it is agreed” b/w popes and secular power b/w pope and government to regulate church -Pope make this agreement with secular authority -Called Worms as it is a city in Germany, and they met there to make this agreement -They then Pope Calixtus and Henry V met and they made a agreement  In textbook (look into more details)  Election of bishops were meant to be canonical (church law); elected by the clergy as a positive stance  Fiefs and symbols given and then after that he would get symbols of spiritual authority  In the middle ages there would be fights about this (popes were vulnerable, and they were afraid of Germans)  Popes start to act like kings in many ways during this time, monarchies and formed as popes many alliances  Marked a formal end to the investiture controversy  Consequences of agreement: o Short term:  This was a realistic compromise  Didn’t satisfy extremists on both sides, but a start for workable solution  It wasn’t workable on paper as they are still writing on parchment paper, sheepskin, etc  This meant that Emperor did control Church, but they had to exercise rules based on canonical rule  Peace treaty  It’s an admirable attempt to rectify situation (but arguments continue in future times)  Rulers will find other ways to control subjects, and they will build bureaucracies and offices that don’t rely on churches  This wasn’t a final settlement, but it introduced an atmosphere of peace and concord (people were affair of this, they had ended the state of turmoil)  Many points were held over for the future, some breathing space had been created  Damage that had been done due to violent strife could be repaired to some degree (especially in Germany) o Long term:  For German Rulers:  There were many rebellions from dukes  The emperor was in conflict with investiture conflict and couldn’t deal with duke rebellions as well  All this fighting resulted in institutions suffered  Central authority eroded and was returned to the hands of regional operatives  For Popes;  They emerged with more prestige  People acknowledged that they are Christian rulers  Resurgence of papal society  Enhanced sense on Popes that they are the leaders of the Church  Balance of power in society:  Figuring out sphere of authority of church and society would be defined  Duality in medieval government (problem and conflict with Church and State) 9/9/2013 8:24:00 AM Monday, September 23, 2013 – History 2DD3 Notes Outline: Islamic Empire Seljuk Turks Byzantine Empire Emperor Alexius I Commenus (1081-1118) Pope Urban II (1088-1099) Council of Clermont, 1095 People’s Crusade, 1096 Peter the Hermit Walter the Penniless Islamic Empire Vast Islamic Empire in the Middle East Established from the time of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) Certain unity remained on religion, language & culture Did not have a strong central regime (unstable) Flourishing economy Seljuk Turks External force & tried to control the Islamic Empire They adopted religion of Islam, captured Baghdad & sweeping territories, threatened Islamic Empire Middle East had a tense situation Seljuk  Persia, Iraq & Syria Goal: Egypt & squish Byzantines Emperor Alexius I Commenus (1081-1118) Alexius tried to build up Byzantines Byzantines lacked man power Byzantines were very skilled at manipulating enemies Various enemies neutralize everyone Alexius decided he needed bodies & he appealed to the Pope in Rome for help Popes began to assert that they were the rulers of the Christian world Alexius proposed to the Pope if he were to help w/ soldiers, so Rome & orthodox Christians united (no document recorded for this written proposal) Alexius that Muslims should not control the land where Christ lived Movement of reform to Church that are led increasingly by popes Roman popes expanded view of their power  reform the Christian world Began to mobilize support & believed in universal Christianity Middle Ages Pope had a lot of power They are not calling it a crusade yet 5 Possible Reasons Pope interested: 1) Get holy land back for Christians 2) could help reunite Christian-dom A lot of fighting happened so could be united w/ a leadership of the Pope 3) Popes assume leadership  enhancing prestige 4) if French or Latin warriors or Byzantines might unite & would be together against Muslims 5) War would meet the needs of many francish Knights High infant mortality  large families  lack of resources Younger sons of aristocracies don’t get enough status Younger sons desire for land b/c these knights don’t have any & could accomplish this if they attack & achieve it Pope Urban II  called the Crusade Called it in Clermont This church council bring Knights, Lords to meet at Clermont (Council of Clermont, 1095) Pope gives speech to them & recognized as most effective call of propaganda 5 different persons wrote it down  one of them in the source book Speech touched upon all reasons why should go Very emotional speech Pope talked about how Christians were facing problems in Jerusalem & then he started flattering about the Knights (Byzantines) He asserted that those who died on Crusade go right to heaven Kind of an armed pilgrimage undertaken for aid for Christians in the Middle East Response to the speech overwhelming Surge of masculinity Men started running up to the front and took an oath to the curse (right after the speech) Red cross sewn to the front of the tunic; when you come back it was flipped to the back so everyone in society could tell After Clement, Pope Urban II travelled around (spread the message, I believe) People started preaching the crusade, message went everyone, appeal generated astounding response Going to pick up on People’s Crusade 1096, Peter the Hermit & Walter the Penniless Readings (Source Book) The Crusades  Pope Urban proclaims a crusade  The Pope said to give back to the Christians and to fight invaders  “Christ commands it. Remission of sins will be granted for those going thither”  First to call to battle o Capture of Jerusalem  They made wooden ladders to scale the city and then attack it  Rushed upon it from all sides in an attack  They couldn’t enter with the ladders as there were so few of them  Craftsmen were then ordered to make machines  There was no bread or meat to eat, people were very thirsty  Made a wooden tower to use to scale wall, there was a lot of bloodshed  Follow day they breached the wall  They made the tower into a bridge and used machines to fire flaming firebrands  They then overtook the city and biblical reference is made “Christ redeemed the whole world on the cross”  On top of Solomon’s temple they killed fleeing people and women and children were not spared  Byzantine View of Crusades o Unflattering account of the leaders of the First Crusade (account by Anna Comnena daughter of Byzantine emperor Alexius (on history of her father’s reign)) o Count Godfey made the crossing with some other counts o Different counts wanted to dethrone the current king Alexius, he knew of their plan o Franks heard a false rumour that their counts had been arrested and sought out to have a war o Battle didn’t occur as Alexius didn’t want it to and it was a Holy day o Latins were there but Alexius avoided killing them, rather shot arrows that didn’t hit their target as a warning  Arab View of Crusades o Ousama Ibn Mounkidh’s interesting account  God should be revered  In the army of Fulk, the son of Fulk, there was a respectable Frankish knight who had come to make pilgrimage in the country  He called him “my brother” and they shared a bond  The knight took his 14 year old son (Ousama’s) out of the country to make him an intelligent man when he came back, however Ousama said that wasn’t possible and he didn’t agree with the intelligence concept (didn’t think it was wise to say so)  Franks had strange ways to conduct medicine (accounts mentioned in the book, but they are gorey)  Please refer to book for other instances (they do get a little gorey) Tuesday Sept. 24th 9/9/2013 8:24:00 AM - important: speech had a remarkable response (Council of Clermont) - people in the middle ages always wanted sermons (b/c no other entertainment) Peter the Hermit & Walter the Penniless - went around the villages preaching about the crusade - preachers began to reiterate themes: esteological (study of the last & final thing; I.e. plague, famine, war) ... Talk about the last day ... It will be the final day of the battle b/w followers of Christ & followers of anti-Christ (he will awaken & lead us) People's Crusade, 1096 - hear vaguely that its East - disorganized groups heading Eastward toward Europe - peasant crusaders were a source of trouble - attached the inhabitants - wanted food while traveling Crusading Army - professional soldiers - knight  5 foot 3 inches average, horses were small & interbreed them with Arab strains to make them now a bit larger, must have been incredibly strong, trained w/ heavy armor - few objects of the crusade survived - crusading knights were using chain mail armor (weighed about 25-30 pounds) ... Underneath the chainmail they'd wear something like leather padded (unbearably hot in Jerusalem & adds on to the weight) ... Chainmail became less useful and led to plate armor in Europe eventually - armor is used more ornamental b/c new weapons eventually came out (i.e. bow & arrow) - mace is purely ornamental now 4 part series of crusades on BBC (Terry) - when reached Jerusalem ... It was really hot, metal armour completely suited, weren't prepare, fought extremely bravely - cultural stereotypes: European brave & dumb, Byzantines intelligent & not brave Can look at: Peter Burkholder "Popular (Mis)conceptions of Medieval Warfare" History Compass 5/2 (2007): 507-524 (on-line journal available through Mills) www.deremilitari.org (The Society for Medieval Military History) Sept. 26th 9/9/2013 8:24:00 AM First Crusade: (1095-1099) Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem -Pope had a speech that targeted the knights -Pope called a crusade under his leadership Christianity could be reunited -4 major parties set out to go to Constantinople -From Northern France there is a group -One from Toulouse -One from Southern Italty -One from Lotheringa -Armies made together (Pope hadn’t made plans for this, assumed God wanted this event to occur and God would look after them)
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